By Sara Oldfield, Noel McGough
Read Online or Download A CITES Manual for Botanic Gardens. Second edition. PDF
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Additional resources for A CITES Manual for Botanic Gardens. Second edition.
Typical joint spacings are: Clay bricks Up to 12 m c/c on plan (6 m from corners) and 9 m vertically or every three storeys if the building is greater than 12 m or four storeys tall (in cement mortar). Concrete blocks 3 m–7 m c/c (in cement mortar). Hardstanding 70 m c/c. Steel roof sheeting 20 m c/c down the slope, no limit along the slope. Design Data 31 Fire resistance periods for structural elements Fire resistance of structure is required to maintain structural integrity to allow time for the building to be evacuated.
Source: BS 6399: Part 1: 1996. 46 Structural Engineer’s Pocket Book Minimum barrier heights Use Position Single family dwelling (a) Barriers in front of a window (b) Stairs, landings, ramps, edges of internal ﬂoors (c) External balconies, edges of roofs All other uses (d) Barrier in front of a window (e) Stairs (f) Balconies and stands, etc. 8 of BS 6180. Source: BS 6180: 1999. Height mm 800 900 1100 800 900 800* 1100 Design Data 47 Selection of materials Material Advantage Disadvantage Aluminium Good strength to dead weight ratio for long spans Good corrosion resistance Often from recycled sources Cannot be used where stiffness is critical Stiffness is a third of that of steel About two to three times the price of steel Concrete Design is tolerant to small, late alterations Integral ﬁre protection Integral corrosion protection Provides thermal mass if left exposed Client pays as the site work progresses: ‘pay as you pour’ Dead load limits scope Greater foundation costs Greater drawing ofﬁce and detailing costs Only precasting can accelerate site work Difﬁcult to post-strengthen elements Fair faced ﬁnish needs very skilled contractors and carefully designed joints Masonry Steelwork Provides thermal mass The structure is also the cladding Can be decorative by using a varied selection of bricks Economical for low rise buildings Inherent sound, ﬁre and thermal properties Easy repair and maintenance Skilled site labour required Long construction period Less economical for high rise Light construction reduces foundation costs Intolerant to late design changes Design needs to be ﬁxed early Fast site programme Members can be strengthened easily Ideal for long spans and transfer structures Timber Traditional/low-tech option Sustainable material Cheap and quick with simple connections Skilled labour not an absolute requirement Easily handled NOTE: See sustainability chapter for additional considerations.
The owner remains responsible for the tree(s), their condition and any damage they may cause, but only the planning authority can give permission to work on them. Arboriculturalists (who can give advice on work which needs to be carried out on trees) and contractors (who are qualiﬁed to work on trees) should be registered with the Arboricultural Association. In some cases (including if the tree is dangerous) no permission is required, but notice (about 5 days (or 6 weeks in a conservation area) depending on the UK region) must be given to the planning authority.