By Kurt E. Geckeler, Hiroyuki Nishide
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Additional resources for Advanced Nanomaterials, Two Volume Edition
The block copolymer ﬁlm is lying on top of a dark Au-ﬁlm, which was used as the lower electrode. The upper electrode has been removed. Cylinders oriented normal to the substrate pass all the way through the sample. Reprinted with permission from Ref. ; © 2006, Wiley-VCH. silicon ﬁeld effect transistors , and FLASH memory devices . The creation of high-aspect ratio patterns has always been problematic due to the difﬁculty of achieving a single microdomain orientation in thick BCP ﬁlms.
In the case where t < Lo, the situation becomes more complicated, as the lamellar chains will arrange perpendicular to the substrate due to the large entropic penalty associated with the chains having to compress to ﬁt into the parallel orientation . 9) have been found as the ﬁlm thickness changes, due to the competition of several forces such as strong surface interactions, slow kinetics, and the thermodynamic driving force to arrange in layers commensurate with the height Lo. The physical complexity of block copolymer systems is staggering, and orientational control over these systems has developed into a ﬁeld of its own .
The active center can be modiﬁed either by in situ reactions or by isolation of the ﬁrst block, followed by chemical transformation of the active center with a separate reaction; the polymerization can then continue after addition of the second monomer. For example, an SFRP mechanism can be transformed into an anionic ring-opening system for the polymerization of poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide). First, the styrene undergoes SFRP in the presence of mercaptoethanol, a chain-transfer agent. The hydroxyl functionalized PS is then used as a “macroinitiator” for the anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide .