By Andrew J. Clark
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Additional resources for Advanced Techniques in Art Conservation
Regarding Jordaens painting, five different compounds have been pinpointed alone, in mixtures or even layered. Smalt and indigo have been found on original areas such as on the woman’s skirt (Figure 3). Jordaens used indigo as a dark underpaint highlighted by partially discolored smalt brushstrokes. The presence of smalt has been inferred on the basis of cobalt signals in the XRF spectra and near-FTIR evidencing the typical shape of the electronic absorption due to d-d transition of Co(II) in pseudotetrahedral coordination35 (Figure 3a).
The profile of fatty acids, hydroxy acids, alcohols, diols, and alkanes points to beeswax and another acyl-lipid material. Figure 9a shows the TIC chromatogram of the amino acid fraction, and Figure 9b shows the PCA score plot obtained by comparing the amino acid profile with reference tempera paint layers, thus indicating that the sample contained animal glue. 4. Reference Materials and Databases Reference materials play an important role in analytical chemistry. Their basic purpose is to calibrate instruments and validate analytical procedures.
However, the use of microdestructive techniques reveals two main limitations. The first is the requirement of sampling that, although minimal, is not advisible when dealing with irreplaceable or precious items. Second, even in instances where microspecimens may even be available (typically from the edges or from damages or lacunae), the sampling sites may not be representative of the entire artwork. To overcome these shortcomings, there has been a growing interest in the use of noninvasive analytical techniques able to yield information by remote examination of the entire artwork.