By V.A. Lefebvre
In this ebook moral structures are defined within the language of arithmetic. regularly arithmetic is assumed to be a technological know-how of volume. certainly, manipulation of amounts constitutes a lot of arithmetic. simple utilized arithmetic offers with reckoning and size, the place concrete amounts are gadgets of realization, comparable to counting sheep or weighing corno however the operations on those amounts are played with assistance from symbols, from which concrete referents were 'abstracted out': three + five = eight whether the symbols stand for numbers of sheep or hundreds corno hence, the 1st precept that shows the facility of arithmetic is abstraction. it really is one ofthe 3 pillars on which the edifice of arithmetic rests. one other pillar is precision. as a rule, guy communicates through phrases. W ords serve communique to the level that they seek advice from issues, occasions, states of affairs, emotions of the speaker, and so forth. those are the meanings attributed to phrases. communique is profitable to the level that the meanings coded upon phrases via the speaker correspond to the meanings decoded by way of the hearer. As is weH recognized, the measure ofthis correspondence varies significantly in numerous contexts of discourse and with the again grounds or attitudes of the audio system and hearers. arithmetic is a language within which the meanings ofthe symbols (the 'words' ofthis language) are totally specified. This precision is accomplished through abstraction. summary phrases are outlined via their relatives to different phrases and via not anything else.
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Additional info for Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems
We see that Iaa . 3. We see that the ethical status ofthe individuals with simplest structures is higher ifthey have a correct image of themselves, compared with individuals differing only in that they have an incorrect image of themselves. The above examination demonstrates the main principle of our in- 3~ 3. ~--. 4. '. 2 Another example of individuals' reactions to various combinations of environmental demands. 3 A comparision of modules of two-tier individuals with correct vs. incorrect images of themselves.
5. A Structure of a situation represented as an automaton. 4 An example of connection between individuals' reactions to certain environmental demands and corresponding assessment of situation. a o 1 o b A B A+B 1 o o o o o l-p o o l-p 1 P o l-p + p (a) l-p o + 1 P p (b) Fig. 6. (a) Individual A == a" has a correct image ofhis partner; (h) individual A == incorrect image of his partner. 4. Thus, lAI = i; IBI = t; IA + BI = 1. Now we will briefly analyze the work of automata in environments with an unequal content of good and evil.
We will eonsider four basic structures of doubt. To simplify our analysis we assurne that an individual has a eorreet image of hirnself. THE FIRST ETHICAL SYSTEM Structure 1: aA+B_ =aaii+b+b , where A == aä + b and B == b. Substitute 0 for a: Thus, A = 0 and B = b. Therefore, if A doubts the eorrectness ofbis image of hirnself and does not doubt that ofhis adversary, he always feels guilty when he has a bad intention. Structure 2: a A+B _ =a aa+b+b , where A == aU + 6 and B == b. FEELING GUILTY, CONDEMNATION, DOUBT 35 If a=O, Thus, A = band B = b.