By Geoffrey J. Martin
Up-to-date and revised to incorporate theoretical and different advancements, bibliographical additions, new photos and illustrations, and improved identify and topic indexes, the fourth version of All attainable Worlds: A heritage of Geographical Ideas is the main entire and entire publication of its style. The textual content additionally includes a format and clarity that make the fabric effortless to navigate and understand.
The ebook investigates the ways that the topic of geography has been well-known, perceived, and evaluated, from its early acknowledgment in old Greece to its disciplined shape in modern global of shared principles and mass conversation. robust continuities knit the Classical interval to the Age of Exploration, then hold scholars on via Varenius to Humboldt and Ritter--revealing the emergence of "the new geography" of the trendy Period.
The historical past of yank geography--developed in seven of the twenty chapters--is strongly emphasised pursuant to the formal origins of geography in overdue nineteenth-century Germany, Darwin's thought of evolution, and the good Surveys of the yankee West. This therapy is more advantageous through chapters relating parallel histories of geography in Germany, France, nice Britain, Russia (including the USSR and CIS), Canada, Sweden, and Japan-countries that initially contributed to and later borrowed from the physique people geographical thought.
All attainable Worlds: A background of Geographical Ideas, Fourth version, is perfect for upper-level undergraduate or graduate classes within the background and philosophy of classical, medieval, and sleek geographical thought.
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Extra info for All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas
He was also the first Greek to tell about ocean tides (the tides on the Mediterranean are too small to be noticed), and he showed that the tides were related to the phases of the moon. How much farther north he went is a puzzle, although he reported on the exist ence of a place called Thule, six days sailing north of Great Britain. It is probable that he sailed along the eastern shore of the North Sea, perhaps as far as modem Denmark. He is quoted as having been to a place where the length of the longest day was between 17 and 19 hours, which would place him 61°N, in the northern most of the Shetland Islands.
He crossed the Hellespont into Asia. His first marches were close to the coast, where he could be supplied by ship. But then he grew bolder and invaded the central part of present-day Turkey, then part of the Persian Empire. Thence he continued southward along the eastern side of the Mediterranean to Egypt, where he established his rule. , which was destined to become one of the great commercial and intellectual centers of the ancient world. After some exploratory excursions to oases in the Libyan desert west of the Nile, he turned again toward the east, crossing into the heart of the Persian Empire (modem Iran) by way of Babylon and Persepolis.
Ptolemy not only accepted the smaller estimate of the earth’s circumference by Posidonius, but he also increased the error in the eastward extension of the land area. Using the authoritative work of Ptolemy, Columbus estimated that Asia must lie very close to Europe on the west. The Guide to Geography consisted of eight volumes. The first was a discussion of map projections together with a few corrections of the data from Marinus based on actual astronomical observations that he had carried out himself.