By Barbara Taylor
This name within the "Eyewitness publications" sequence covers the Arctic and Antarctic. It explains how vegetation, animals and other people live on within the chilly, what they locate to consume, and the way they dwell. detect the way to construct an igloo, how husky canines pull a sled, and stick to within the footsteps of the heroic explorers.
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Extra info for Arctic and Antarctic (DK Eyewitness Guides)
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 286, C1213–1228. S. (2008) Biology of claudins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 295, F867–876. , and Yang, Y. (2001) The roles of claudin superfamily proteins in paracellular transport. Traffic 2, 93–98. C. (2004) Barriers built on claudins. J Cell Sci 117, 2435–2447. Koval, M. (2006) Claudins: Key pieces in the tight junction puzzle. Cell Commun Adhes 13, 127–138. M. (2009) Physiology and function of the tight junction. Cold Spring Harbor Perspect Biol 1, a002584. G. (2003) Role of claudin interactions in airway tight junctional permeability.
Yu Abstract Claudins are tight junction membrane proteins that act as paracellular pores and barriers and regulate epithelial permeability to small ions. A key step in understanding the function of any claudin isoform is the in vitro measurement of its ion permeability and selectivity. Herein, we describe methods to generate clonal lines with stable inducible overexpression of claudins in Madin–Darby canine kidney epithelial cells, measure conductance and diffusion potentials in Ussing chambers, correct for liquid junction potentials, and derive quantitatively accurate values for individual ion permeabilities.
Once the Ringer saline is made, it is fairly stable and unused solution can be stored at 4°C (to prevent bacterial growth) for weeks to months. MDCK cell conductance and ion permeability are relatively insensitive to small changes in extracellular osmolality. , salts are fully dissociated in solution, the osmotic coefficient of mannitol is 1, and osmolality and osmolarity are equivalent). The commercial vector contains Moloney murine leukemia virus-based retroviral transcription and processing elements, together with a Tet-responsive promoter, and hygromycin resistance gene for selection in mammalian cells.