By Anthony H. Rose Ph.D. (auth.)
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Additional info for Chemical Microbiology
It also varies with theageofthe organism. For example, with Escherichia coli, the electrophoretic mobility is lowest during the early exponential phase of growth. CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANES The vitally important structures and organelles of a micro-organislll are located within the cytoplasm, which is itself bounded by a membrane usually referred to as the cytoplasmic membrane or occasionally by the older name of plasma membrane (Figure 14). Because there is normally a large difference in osmotic pressure between the cytoplasmic contents and the aqueous environment, this membrane is distended and, in thin sections of organisms, is seen to lie directly beneath the rigid cell wall.
In this polymer the backbone is made up of alternating residues of glycerol and N-acetylglucosamine joined by phosphodiester linkages. D-Alanine is linked to the N-acetylglucosamine 23 MOLECULAR ARCHITECTURE residues, probably at C-6, by a linkage that is very much more stable than that formed when alanine is joined to a polyol residue. Although the essential details ofteichoic acid structure are known, there is a lack of information on the fine structure of these wall polymers. Little is known, for example, of the frequency with which the backbone residues are substituted with D-alanine and sugars, or of the possible occurrence in the walls of any one bacterium of teichoic acid molecules with different degrees of substitution in the backbone.
G. Khorana (Proc. natn. Acad. Sei. A. 1966,57,751)) 52 CYTOPLASM in this fraction is protein and includes a number of different enzymes. Another important high molecular weight constituent of the cell sap is transfer-RNA (t-RNA). Transfer-RNAs consist of single polynucleotide chains containing 70-80 nucleotide residues. Moreover, they contain nucleotide residues that are not found in other types of RNA; included among these are residues containing methylated purines and pyrimidines, dihydrouracil and pseudouridine (5-ß-D-ribofuranosyluracil; tjJ).