By Elham Ghashghai
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Additional info for Communications Networks To Support Integrated Intelligence, Surveillance, And Reconnaissance Strike Operations
This margin provides some protection against jamming, which we will discuss. However, these links are not designed for more severe jamming environments or SIGINT receivers. 5” Lower-altitude platforms such as fighters and bombers 102 101 Data rate = 200 Mbps 2” 8” Higheraltitude platforms 1” (omni) NOTE: Assumptions: 10-dB margin air-to-air link (over 12-dB Eb/N0): air CDL link (AT-100) transmit/receive antennas with 200-W radiated power; 15 GHz. 1—Antenna Size, Data Rate, and Link Range Trade-Offs Spreading the Signal Over Time and Bandwidth Increases LPI/LPD But Degrades Link Capacity Spread-spectrum techniques produce LPI signals that are difficult to detect, read, or jam.
It is further assumed that the communication link becomes vulnerable once the detection probability PD exceeds 10-6 at a false-alarm probability PFA of 10–8. Given that detectability can be conveniently parameterized in terms of the signal power-to-noise spectral density ratio CNR = Ps / N 0 at the intercept receiver, then for a given N 0 we can equivalently parameterize detector performance in terms of Ps (dBm) = CNR (dB − Hz) + N 0 = CNR − 170 . 19 To compute the signal-to-noise ratio and bandwidth, we use formulas (2a), (2b), and (2c) above, which provide approximations for PD and PFA .
Options to Mitigate Jamming and Increase LPI/LPD Moderate jammers and SIGINT receivers are serious threats to communication networks. In addition, the survivability of the entire platform can be compromised if the enemy uses SIGINT receivers to detect and locate air platforms. To guard against these threats, it is critical to improve existing antijam and low-probability of intercept/low probability of detection (LPI/LPD) capabilities in the communications network. In this chapter, we examine the feasibility of the following options for these purposes: • Spread spectrum and frequency-hopping • Smart antennae • Absorption band • Free-space laser.