By Robbie Ethridge
Reconstructing the human and average surroundings of the Creek Indians in frontier Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee, Robbie Ethridge illuminates a time of wrenching transition. Creek Country offers a compelling portrait of a tradition in main issue, of its resiliency within the face of profound switch, and of the forces that driven it into decisive, harmful conflict.
Ethridge starts off in 1796 with the coming of U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins, whose tenure one of the Creeks coincided with a interval of elevated federal intervention in tribal affairs, transforming into pressure among Indians and non-Indians, and said strife in the tribe. In a close description of Creek city existence, the writer unearths how social constructions have been stretched to house elevated engagement with whites and blacks. The Creek economic climate, lengthy associated with the skin international in the course of the deerskin alternate, had began to fail. Ethridge information the Creeks' efforts to diversify their financial system, specifically via experimental farming and ranching, and the ecological situation that ensued. Disputes in the tribe culminated within the pink Stick warfare, a civil warfare between Creeks that quick spilled over into clash among Indians and white settlers and was once finally utilized by U.S. experts to justify their coverage of Indian removal.
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Additional resources for Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World, 1796-1816
The police system largely conformed to Creek institutions, plus the so-called police agents never wielded coercive power and were always subject to revenge according to the principles of blood revenge and re- 18 taliation. The National Council was probably a Creek institution in place long before Hawkins arrived. Hawkins often spoke of the success of the plan for civilization among the Creeks, and there can be no doubt that the economic developments chartered by the plan were moving along.
Hawkins once heard of some Cherokees using this method of ﬁshing on Limestone Creek (in present-day Alabama). 31 There is also some indication that these locations were not ﬁshed as common property. For instance, the Chattahoochee falls, in the late eighteenthcentury, were a four-mile-long rocky shoal about 300 yards wide. The waters brieﬂy separated at the falls and were forced into two channels by a series of rock islands. The eastern channel belonged to the Cowetas; the western channel belonged to the Cussetas.
Creeks and Americans settled many disputes according to their own rules and regulations. Yet in countless incidents, both parties sought Hawkins as mediator. He represented the only international oﬃce on the frontier; hence, it made sense for people to use the oﬃce to settle disputes between Creeks and Americans. I believe that people also sought Hawkins because he was a fair man. As I demonstrate later, Hawkins took painstaking care to collect and assess the evidence in these disputes. Any real power that Hawkins and his oﬃce held over the Creeks lay in the access to Euro-American goods, services, and inﬂuences.