By J. Leitch Wright Jr.
In the course of Andrew Jackson's time the Creeks and Seminoles (Muscogulges) have been the most important staff of Indians dwelling at the frontier. In Georgia, Alabama, and Florida they manifested a geographical and cultural, yet now not a political, cohesiveness. Ethnically and linguistically, they have been hugely assorted. This publication is the 1st to find them firmly of their complete ancient context.
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Additional info for Creeks and Seminoles: The Destruction and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People
Individual towns might have been separated along such ethnic lines, but unfortunately we do not clearly understand much that was happening at the town level. Scholars still debate whether Tuckabatchee, the largest Upper Creek town, was inhabited primarily by the Tuckabatchees, by the Shawnees, or by true Muskogees. 31 It may be best to assume that during the decades before western removal Coweta was Muskogee and Tuckabatchee was not; but Little Tallassee remains an enigma. In other instances nonMuskogees moved from the mother town to form a new town—a colony or offshoot—or moved to already existing nonMuskogee towns.
Horseback was the way to go. Then he paled. Diligent scholars seeking information about southeastern Indian maritime exploits may be more fortunate among those survivors in the Florida Everglades and in the Bahamas. After approaching one another, Indians shook each other's elbows and stroked parts of the arms and torso. 72 Headmen, whose pictures have been preserved, often wore turbans, Page 37 and ordinary Indians tied silk or cotton handkerchiefs about their heads to hold their feathers or plumes.
In a variety of ways Africans and their pure and mixedblood progeny entered and influenced Muscogulge society, and in some instances the Indians we will be dealing with were these kinds of Muscogulges. At or soon after puberty, the Indian acquired a war or hunting name at the husk. The isti atcagagi, or beloved man, was an elder who through exploits in peace, war, commerce and perhaps because of membership in a powerful clan, had risen to prominence. Other titles beyond these mentioned could be found, and particular ethnic groups often used different words for essentially the same office.