By Andrew Denson
Difficult the Cherokee country examines nineteenth-century Cherokee political rhetoric to deal with an enigma in American Indian background: the contradiction among the sovereignty of Indian international locations and the political weak point of Indian groups. employing a wealthy number of petitions, appeals, newspaper editorials, and different public documents, Andrew Denson describes the ways that Cherokees represented their humans and their state to non-Indians after their pressured elimination to Indian Territory within the 1830s. He argues that Cherokee writings on nationhood record a decades-long attempt by way of tribal leaders to discover a brand new version for American Indian kinfolk during which Indian international locations might coexist with a modernizing United States.Most non-Natives within the 19th century assumed that American improvement and development necessitated the top of tribal autonomy, that at most sensible the Indian kingdom used to be a transitional country for local humans as a way to assimilation. As Denson indicates, although, Cherokee leaders chanced on numerous ways that the Indian state, as they outlined it, belonged within the glossy global. Tribal leaders replied to advancements within the usa and tailored their safeguard of Indian autonomy to the nice adjustments remodeling American existence within the heart and past due 19th century. specifically, Cherokees in different methods chanced on new justification for Indian nationhood in American industrialization.
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Additional info for Demanding the Cherokee Nation: Indian Autonomy and American Culture, 1830-1900 (Indians of the Southeast)
For some Americans, the attractive idea of the civilized tribe, combined with the Cherokees’ treaties, more than counterbalanced Georgia’s state’s-rights case. 18 Cherokee leaders understood the value of courting American opinion, and as Georgia pressed its claims with increasing fervor in the 1820s, the Cherokees mounted their own lobbying and public-relations efforts. Delegates traveled to Washington, and memorials appeared with greater frequency. Christian Cherokees appealed to church organizations for help and sympathy.
Commissioners were to be appointed to negotiate removal agreements with the various tribes, with the federal government providing the migrants with lands in the West and funds to defray the cost of moving. Individual Indians could stay in the East, but only if they accepted state citizenship and laws. Although the act did not threaten coercion, it was clear by this time that force would be used if necessary. The passage of the bill at a time when Jackson was refusing to intervene in Georgia indicated that federal authorities were content to allow the states to bully the Indians into accepting migration.
James Monroe and his secretary of war, John C. Calhoun, embraced migration as the most logical solution to America’s Indian problems, and by the end of the 1810s federal commissioners had begun to make increasingly generous offers of land in the West to the more troublesome tribes. Yet for the time being, authorities restricted themselves to persuasion. Preferring that the Indians depart voluntarily, President Monroe (and later President John Quincy Adams) hesitated to dictate the new policy. 0pt P ——— Normal PgEnds: , (8) The Long and Intimate Connection they withheld the threat of force, anticipating that the Indians would soon recognize the logic of migration.