By Alexander G. Reeves
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Extra info for Disorders of the Nervous System
This is called the cilio-spinal reflex and depends predominantly on the integrity of the sensory nerve fibers from the area, the upper thoracic sympathetic motor neurons (T1- T3 lateral horn) and the ascending cervical sympathetic chain (see Fig. 4-8). Interruption of the descending sympathetic pathways in the brain stem frequently has no effect on the reflex. Therefore, if the patient has a constricted pupil presumably secondary to loss of sympathetic tone, absence of the ciliospinal reflex suggests peripheral sympathetic denervation or, if other neurologic signs are present, damage to the upper thoracic spinal cord.
Questions Define the following terms: strabismus, abduction, adduction, elevation, depression, convergence, accomodation, diplopia, meiosis, mydriasis, myopia, hyperopia, conjugate, consensual, extraocular, amblyopia, ptosis, anisocorea. 4-1. Which muscles would be active in the right and left eye when looking up and to the right? 4-2. Which muscles would be active in the right and left eye when looking down and to the left? 4-3. What position will the patient's head assume (in order to prevent diplopia) if their right trochlear nerve is damaged?
Damage to the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory filiments, the olfactory bulb or olfactory tract can cause unilateral anosmia. Destruction of olfactory cortex or olfactory pathways posterior to the trigone (where the tracts divide) must be bilateral to depress olfactory function. ) in the olfactory cortical regions may be the source of epileptic activity and cause olfactory symptoms; that is, the patient may complain of hallucinations of smell. Typically, these olfactory hallucinations are described as acrid and unpleasant and are not lateralized by the patient.