By Pippa Norris
Proposals for power-sharing constitutions stay arguable, as highlighted through present debates in Iraq, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Sudan. This e-book updates and refines the idea of consociationalism, taking account of the flood of up to date options in power-sharing associations that experience happened all over the world. The booklet classifies and compares 4 varieties of political associations: the electoral approach, parliamentary or presidential executives, unitary or federal states, and the constitution and independence of the mass media. The learn assessments the capability merits and drawbacks of every of those associations for democratic governance. Cross-national time-series info pertaining to traits in democracy are analyzed for all international locations around the world because the early Seventies. Chapters are enriched via evaluating precise case reviews. The mixed-method examine layout illuminates the underlying causal mechanisms by means of analyzing old advancements and procedures of institutional switch inside of specific international locations and areas. the realization attracts jointly the implications and the sensible classes for policymakers.
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Extra resources for Driving Democracy: Do Power-Sharing Institutions Work?
99 Rather than simple dichotomies of parliamentary versus presidential systems, there are many different types of checks on the power of presidential executives, so we need to consider the impact of these institutional variations. In the light of this debate, this chapter reexamines the global evidence for the relationship between types of executives and the democracy indicators. Another institutional feature, influencing vertical channels of decisionmaking, concerns how far power is concentrated in the nation’s central government and how far it is devolved downward to subnational and local levels.
Chapter 6 analyzes the systematic contrasts found between presidential and parliamentary executives. Parliamentary systems headed by a prime minister are commonly regarded as more effective for political stability, through binding together the executive and legislature. Cabinet governments are collegial bodies where the classical notion suggests that the prime minister is ‘first among equals’ (primus inter pares). By including representatives from minority parties in cabinet office, coalition governments facilitate bargaining and compromise among parties within the executive.
Chapter 3 considers the most suitable indicators of democracy. Four measures are compared: Freedom House’s index of liberal democracy, the Polity IV project’s measure of constitutional democracy, Vanhanen’s indicator of participatory democracy, and Przeworski and colleagues’ classification based on notions of contested democracy. These represent the most widely cited standard indicators of democracy which are commonly used by scholars and policy analysts in comparative research. Each has several strengths and weaknesses.