By Maarten Kappelle
This complete synthesis systematically covers the whole variety of traditional and controlled oak forests within the highlands of tropical the US. initially, those forests have been greatly dispensed, yet principally via human influence huge components have disappeared and the rest patches are below expanding probability. For the 1st time, features as various because the paleo-ecology, biogeography, stand constitution and composition, biodiversity, inhabitants dynamics, environment dynamics, fragmentation and restoration, conservation and sustainable use of Neotropical montane oak forests are handled in a coherent demeanour. offering an intensive figuring out of ecological styles and tactics that ascertain the constitution and functioning of those superb forests, this quantity can function a legitimate foundation for sustainable woodland administration and biodiversity conservation as a rule.
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Additional info for Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak Forests (Ecological Studies, 185)
C. 1 Introduction The genus Quercus is one of the most important clades of woody angiosperms in the northern hemisphere in terms of species diversity, ecological dominance, and economic value. Oaks are dominant members of a wide variety of habitats, including temperate deciduous forest, temperate and subtropical evergreen forest, subtropical and tropical savannah, subtropical woodland, oak-pine forest, oak-’piñon’-juniper woodlands, various kinds of ‘cloud forest’, tropical premontane forest, tropical montane forest, matorral (summer rain chaparral), and a variety of Mediterranean climate vegetations, including chaparral (French: maqui), oak woodland, and evergreen oak forest (Nixon 1993a, b, 1997b, 2002; Kappelle et al.
Under natural conditions, the largest and possibly most continuous surface of oak forest is found in the Sub-Andean forest belt. During the late Pleistocene, the long river valleys of the Rio Magdalena and the Rio Cauca may have served as routes for easy southward expansion. M. Cleef, personal communication). At several places, for example, where valleys give easy access to Inter-Andean high plains, a close genetic relationship is assumed between low- and high-elevation oak populations. Much of the Sub-Andean forest belt has been cleared for agriculture, and today’s last remnants of oak forest are found mostly in the Andean forest belt (Chap.
Numerous studies have attempted to document and characterize hybridization among oak species, and in the last part of the 20th Century, several studies employed genetic and/or molecular markers to address questions of hybridization. In addition to documenting obvious cases of morphological introgression, some studies also found that cryptic hybridization could be present, as evidenced by the distribution of plastid types that seemed to be independent of species boundaries, but correlated instead with geographic proximity of populations.