By Robert W. Christopherson
One of the such a lot extremely popular in actual geography, Robert Christopherson’s bestselling Elemental Geosystems is recognized for forex, accuracy, wealthy integration of weather switch technological know-how, and a dynamic multimedia software. Elemental Geosystems, Seventh Edition is prepared round the common movement of power, fabrics, and knowledge, offering topics within the related series within which they take place in nature — an natural, holistic method that's distinctive during this self-discipline. each one bankruptcy additionally contains powerful pedagogical instruments and a established studying course that includes Key studying strategies offered first and foremost of the bankruptcy, Key studying ideas evaluate on the finish of the bankruptcy, and demanding considering questions built-in all through.
Offering present examples and smooth technology inside of a distinctive Earth platforms association, Christopherson combines student-friendly writing, the most up-tp-date functions, impressive artwork, and a powerful multimedia software for a really targeted actual geography experience.
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Additional info for Elemental Geosystems (7th Edition)
Eventually, Earth radiates this energy back to the cold vacuum of space as heat energy. Closed Systems A system that is shut off from the surrounding environment so that it is self-contained is a closed system. Although such closed systems are rarely found in nature, Earth is essentially a closed system in terms of physical matter and resources—air, water, and material resources. The only exceptions are the slow escape of lightweight gases (such as hydrogen) from the atmosphere into space and the input of frequent, but tiny meteors and cosmic dust.
Systems Analysis and Species Extinction Scientists found that the key to understanding extinctions of harlequin frog (Atelopus varius) and golden toad (Bufo periglenes) species in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica, and elsewhere in Central and South America was a consideration of climate change and how this alters transmission of diseases and pathogens. One infectious agent, the chytrid fungus (Bactrachochytrium dendrobactidis), has spread as thermal-optimum conditions were reached in its mid-elevation range (1000 m to 2400 m; 3280 ft to 7874 ft) in the mountain-cloud forest.
Raise nighttime minimum temperatures, whereas clouds during the day act as reflectors, lowering daytime maximum temperatures (see Chapter 3). The chytrid fungus does best when temperatures are between 17°C and 25°C (63°F and 77°F). The new cloud cover keeps the daytime maximum below 25°C (77°F) at the forest floor. In these more favorable conditions, the disease pathogen flourishes. Harlequin frogs have moist, porous skin that the fungus penetrates, killing the frog. Between 1986 and 2006, approximately 67% of the 110 known species of harlequin frogs went extinct—extinction is forever.