By E. M. Wilson PhD MSc FICE FASCE (auth.)
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The difference between coastal temperate and tropical climates should be noted. The data may also be presented in the form of maps of a region, with isohyetallines indicating total rainfall depth that may be expected in a time t, at a frequency of once in N years. A classic publication of this type by Yarnall  shows such maps for the USA. 9 is a typical one, reproduced from Yarnall's paper and showing the five-minute rainfall that may be expected once in 50 years. 4 Depth-area-time relationships.
The simplest way of doing this is to take the arithmetical mean of the amounts known for all points in the area. If the distribution of such points over the area is uniform and the variation in the individual gauge's amounts are not large, then this method gives reasonably good results. ::--- 20 15 f.. 8 Rainfall frequency-intensity-duration relationships taken at Kumasi, Ghana (courtesy of Ghanaian Meteorological Service) and Oxford (courtesy of Institute of Hydrology) Another method, due to Thiessen  , defines the zone of influence of each station by drawing lines between pairs of gauges, bisecting the lines with perpendiculars, and assuming all the area enclosed within the boundary formed by these intersecting perpendiculars has had rainfall of the same amount as the enclosed gauge.
The approach is deterministic rather than statistical. PMP varies with geographical location, season of the year, area and elevation of the catchment and storm duration. 2 The statistical method. An alternative statistical method is sometimes used when sufficient precipitation data are available. , is unavailable. It is also much quicker to perform. The procedure due to Hershfield [18, 19] is based on the general frequency equation  X t =Xn +K an where X t is the rainfall of a specified duration for return period t, and X nand an are, respectively, the mean and standard deviation for a series of annual maximum values of rainfall of that duration.