By United Nations
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Additional resources for Escwa Water Development Report: Vulnerability of the Region to Socio-economic Drought (Water Resources Series)
FAOSTAT Online Database (Rome, 2004). 69 E. DePauw, An Agro-ecological Exploration ofthe Arabian Peninsula (Aleppo [Syrian Arab Republic], ICARDA, 2002). 70 M. Malakouti, "The role of zinc on the yield and grain fortification of wheat in the calcareous soils of dry lands", paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Development of Drylands, held at Tehran, September 2003. 71 P. , September 2001, p. 4. 1. 73 P. Haze11 and others, "Managing droughts in the low-rainfall areas of the Middle East and North Africa", p.
I3O E. SOCIO-ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY Jordan, with its limited natural resource base and domestic market, has been largely dependent on external trade and foreign income inflows for economic development. Inflows of foreign aid and remittances from expatriates have permitted domestic consumption to outpace production, causing gross national product (GNP) to exceed GDP. Jordan's economic growth and contraction to a large degree has mirrored the booms, busts and conflicts of the region. In the wake of the first Gulf war in 1991 and the subsequent trade embargo on Iraq, the loss of the markets of Iraq and the Gulf States and suppressed overall economic investment revealed Jordan's vulnerability to external forces.
In the past it was only used for grazing; however, in the last two decades, 20,000 ha have been irrigated, using groundwater to grow vegetables, fruit trees and cereals, especially barley; (b) Marginal arid zone: This zone comprises the plains between the Badia (semi-desert) and the Highlands, receiving 200-250 mm annual rainfall. Rain-fed crops are mainly barley, yielding 300-700 kilograms (kg) per ha. The estimated production of the arid zone is 60,000 tons of barley grain, 80,000 tons of straw, and 10,000 tons of dry fodder barley.