By Valery Tishkov
Valery Tishkov is a well known Russian historian and anthropologist, and previous Minister of Nationalities in Yeltsin's govt. This publication attracts on his inside of wisdom of significant occasions and huge basic learn. Tishkov argues that ethnicity has a multifaceted function: it's the such a lot obtainable foundation for political mobilization; a way of controlling energy and assets in a reworking society; and remedy for the nice trauma suffered via contributors and teams below earlier regimes. This complexity is helping clarify the contradictory nature and results of public ethnic rules in response to a doctrine of ethno-nationalism.
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Extra info for Ethnicity, Nationalism and Conflict in and after the Soviet Union: The Mind Aflame (International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO))
Absence of at least one of these traits is enough for a nation not to be a nation' (Stalin, 195152, pp. 296297). In contrast to their political opponents who advocated 'one and indivisible Russia', the Bolsheviks supported political movements among the non-Russian peoples, viewing them as allies in the struggle against absolutism. The very first document adopted at the Second AllRussia Congress of Soviets, 25 October 1917, declared that the Soviet power 'shall provide all the nations that inhabit Russia with the genuine right to self-determination' (Lenin, 1962, vol.
As can be seen from the materials of the 1923 Conference, in the first years of Bolshevik rule Stalin was in favor of creating state forms for smaller ethnic groups so as to weaken the positions of representatives of the larger ones who could emerge as serious contenders in the struggle for control over the Center. The fight against 'Sultan-Galiyevism' was spearheaded in fact not so much against the Turkic peoples as against the growing tension between the representatives of Moscow and Kiev, as well as against Stalin's opponents in the central leadership.
Here we should note the census of 1939, before which (in November 1936) Stalin used the phrase 'about 60 nations, national groups and narodnosti comprise the multinational Soviet State' (Stalin, 1947, p. 513). This was enough to reduce the number of ethnic groups in the next census to 99! From its very inception the national state-building project encountered a central obstacle: the impossibility of drawing internal 'national state' boundaries along ethnic lines. The country's population in many areas was ethnically mixed and the boundaries of ethnicity itself were extremely shifting, making it impossible to determine distinctly even the very names of Soviet nationalities, worse still to outline their 'own' territories.