By Antonello Pasini
From Observations to Simulations leads us on a trip in the course of the equipment used for the clinical research of complicated structures corresponding to the ambience and the Earth approach: from meteorology and climatology, as observational sciences, to the improvement of versions and using pcs as digital laboratories. In simple, obtainable language, warding off technicalities, yet highlighting the conceptually significant points, the e-book describes this "Copernican revolution" in meteorology and climatology, a metamorphosis in methodological paradigm that conscientiously exams the definition of a few classical techniques, equivalent to "causality" and "prediction. this can be the 1st ebook that courses most of the people (and units the experts considering) via examine on complicated platforms that is contributing to a metamorphosis in our outlook on nature.
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Extra info for From Observations to Simulations: A Conceptual Introduction to Weather and Climate Modelling
This common experience of "body warming" by "absorption" of the beams coming from the Sun obviously leads us to believe that the same thing happens to the air masses. This opinion is confirmed by several pieces of evidence coming from observation. For instance, if we consider the same period of the year and temporarily disregard the direction from which the wind comes, we notice that when the sky is clear and the weather is sunny the air is usually warmer than on cloudy days. In particular, during the morning the air becomes gradually warmer as the Sun rises above the horizon.
G. an hour) is regarded as constant, before it reaches the ground (or our body), a certain part of this energy is probably absorbed by the atmosphere through which it passes. At this point, when the Sun is low on the horizon, the path of its beams in the atmosphere is much longer than when it is near its zenith. This way, in the morning and evening the amount of energy (heat) per time unit that reaches the air near the ground is presumably much smaller than the amount that reaches the ground in the central hours of the day, when the Sun is higher on the horizon.
As a result of these characteristics, geostationary and polar satellites complement each other in the global observational network. At present, for exclusively meteorological observations there exist 5 geostationary satellites (such as the European METEOSAT, known also to the general public) e 3 polar satellites. g. 12 GMT) simultaneously over a vast area (basically most of the hemisphere over which they are), polar satellites are bound to the limited area they can observe at a certain instant.