By Gregory Ellis Smoak
This cutting edge cultural heritage examines wide-ranging problems with faith, politics, and identification via an research of the yank Indian Ghost Dance circulation and its importance for 2 little-studied tribes: the Shoshones and Bannocks. The Ghost Dance has develop into a metaphor for the demise of yankee Indian tradition, yet as Gregory Smoak argues, it used to be no longer the determined delusion of a demise humans yet a strong expression of a racialized "Indianness." whereas the Ghost Dance did attract supernatural forces to revive energy to local peoples, on one other point it grew to become a motor vehicle for the expression of significant social identities that crossed ethnic, tribal, and historic limitations. taking a look heavily on the Ghost Dances of 1870 and 1890, Smoak constructs a far-reaching, new argument concerning the formation of ethnic and racial id between American Indians. He examines the origins of Shoshone and Bannock ethnicity, follows those peoples via a interval of declining autonomy vis-a-vis the USA executive, and at last places their event and the Ghost Dances in the greater context of id formation and rising nationalism which marked usa historical past within the 19th century.
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Extra info for Ghost Dances and Identity: Prophetic Religion and American Indian Ethnogenesis in the Nineteenth Century
The] Bonacks [are] better supplied with all the means of Indian independence; horses, lodges, guns, knives, and form bands annually to hunt in the buffalo country. Nathaniel J. Wyeth, 1848 By the time the Ghost Dance movements of the late nineteenth century reached the Fort Hall Reservation in southeastern Idaho, government officials and the local white population agreed that the reservation was the home of two discrete peoples, whom they labeled Shoshones and Bannocks. These same observers ascribed particular attitudes and behaviors to these ethnic identities, perhaps best illustrated by the “progressive” Joe Wheeler and the “nonprogressive” Jim Ballard.
Its most glaring flaw is his reliance on a crude environmental determinism that resulted in overstated generalizations and an underestimation of historical factors. For instance, Steward privileged the 18 Identity and Prophecy in the Newe World seed-gathering complex found in the more arid regions of the basin at the time of his research over all other subsistence strategies. Consequently, his simple “gastric culture” best describes some of the Shoshones and Paiutes of northern Nevada at only one moment in their history; it fails to capture the great diversity of subsistence practices and social organization evident among Newe groups at other places and times.
Their condition is much poorer, having no horses. . Another division of the Snakes . . [the] Bonacks [are] better supplied with all the means of Indian independence; horses, lodges, guns, knives, and form bands annually to hunt in the buffalo country. Nathaniel J. Wyeth, 1848 By the time the Ghost Dance movements of the late nineteenth century reached the Fort Hall Reservation in southeastern Idaho, government officials and the local white population agreed that the reservation was the home of two discrete peoples, whom they labeled Shoshones and Bannocks.