By A. I. Berezhnoi
In the last decade seeing that glass-ceramics first grew to become mass-pro duced articles of trade, they've got turn into a favored topic for examine and invention, as attested to by means of the 773 references pointed out during this booklet. found virtually by accident in the course of re seek on photosensitive glasses, thermally crystallized glass ceramics were exclusive via the speedy speed in their utili zation for targeted new items. This promise has been well-known in the course of the international, and unique contributions have seemed from approximately each kingdom having an ongoing glassmaking strength. quite various were the courses and the information, clinical and technolOgi cal, issuing from the USSR. For numerous years, the once a year All Union convention at the Glassy kingdom has been ruled via papers on catalyzed crystallization of glasses. with reference to new prod uct strains, we know about slag-based sitaUs (glass-ceramics) and in addition approximately distinctiveness goods derived by means of radiation-assisted crystalli zation in glasses, photo-sitaUs. A. I. Berezhnoi has written a finished evaluate of the courses in this subject, which incorporates a balanced weighting to the contributions from the USSR and the united states, and likewise introduces advances from Britain, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Japan, and different facilities of activity.
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Additional resources for Glass-Ceramics and Photo-Sitalls
The higher the center concentration, the easier their system becomes a nonequilibrium one, and the lower is the development temperature of the glass; at temperatures higher than 270°C, the capture of photoelectrons for a given glass is not pOSSible, as a result of which, a direct reduction of the Ag+ ions occurs during the irradiation process. The same authors  studied the absorption bands arising at various temperatures in photosensitive glasses upon x-ray irradiation. It was found that only one broad band I with maxima at 355 nm and 300 nm appeared in glasses with photosensitive additions but without Ceo In glasses containing Ce, a rather shortwave band II which heavily overlapped with band I also appeared.
Band I could easily be produced by heating to 170"C or by the influence of the visible light (optical decolorization). Band II disintegrated upon heating to 300°C; here, a band III with a maximum at 260 nm for Ag-containing, and at 245 nm for Au-containing, SEC. 8] IRRADIATION AT HIGH TEMPERATURES 47 glasses appeared. Upon heating to higher than 410-470"C, this band also broke down, and an absorption band IV with a maximum at 240-250 nm appeared in all glasses. The sensitivity of glasses to x-ray irradiation did not depend on the Ce content.
In the opinion of these authors, there are traps of a certain type in the glass which, after the capture of photoelectrons, change into A centers, the concentration of these traps increasing with temperature. The intensity of the A band increased rapidly during the first 30 min of irradiation, whereupon a slower increase in the intensity was noted, which the authors explain by the filling up of all the traps available at any given temperature, as a result of which, the further slow growth in the latent-image density occurs through the filling up of new traps which aCCidentally appear during the thermal vibration of the structure.