By Mathurin C. Houngnikpo
The connection among civil society and the defense force is an important a part of any polity, democratic or another way, simply because an army strength is in any case a common function of social platforms. This booklet units the degree by means of exploring the idea of civil-military family members and strikes directly to evaluate the intrusion of the military in African politics via having a look first into the association and position of the military in pre-colonial and colonial eras, sooner than studying modern armies and their effect on society. additionally it revisits a number of the motives of army takeovers in Africa and disentangles the concept of the army because the modernizing strength. even if as a progressive strength, as a stabilizing strength, or as a modernizing strength, the army is perceived because the merely equipped and disciplined staff with the mandatory talents to uplift newly self sustaining international locations. With Africa having at the start collaborated with the colonizers, it compares and contrasts the functionality by means of either civilian and armed forces leaders yet unfortunately the army management seems to be as corrupt as, if no more than, their civilian opposite numbers. As such, this learn conveys the need of recent civil-military kin in Africa and calls not only for civilian regulate of the army yet fairly a democratic oversight of the protection forces in Africa.
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Additional resources for Guarding the Guardians: Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Governance in Africa
17 Explaining why democracy is appealing to the world, Stepanek contends that “democratic governments honor universal human rights as values based in law. Democracy is also fundamental to progress because it welcomes initiative, creates 14 Robin Luckham and Gordon White, eds. Democratization in the South: The Jagged Wave. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1996, p. 3. 15 John A. Wiseman, The New Struggle for Democracy in Africa. Brookfield, VT: Avebury, 1996, p. 35. 16 Peter Lewis, “Introduction: Development and Change in Africa,” in P.
Richard W. Hull, Modern Africa: Change and Continuity. , 1980, p. 26. McGowan, op. cit. Conceptual and Theoretical Issues 25 if security, democracy and development (social, economic and political) are to be realized. The civil-military relationship ranges from civilian supremacy over the security forces or vice-versa, to the mutual interfacing with each other for the benefit of a nation as a whole while simultaneously safeguarding the corporate interests of the military and those of civilians.
If the concept has any utility, it is probably in reminding us of the practical importance, in a democracy, of having elected politicians, properly advised by civilian political experts, in control of the security apparatus. It is also desirable that a government should have such people answerable to parliament across the whole range of government activities, including security. Thus, civilian control exists when major decisions about the functioning of the security sector are taken, or at least endorsed, by civilians.