By Saeid Eslamian
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Extra resources for Handbook of engineering hydrology : environmental hydrology and water management
Moreover, groundwater quality deteriorates progressively overall in the Cap Bon and in the Tunisian Sahel. Historically, the groundwater salinization has been thought to result from processes related to water–rock interaction and long-term irrigation practices. Tunisia has arid to semiarid climate. The average rainfall is 500–800 mm/year in the northern part of the country, whereas the South only receives 100–200 mm. 1 billion m3 groundwater. The net development rate of surface resources is 57% and that of groundwater 83% .
This technique can be used for gently sloping land with slope around 1%–3% points without gullies and ridges. Ditches and furrows method: In areas with irregular topography, shallow, flat-bottomed, and closely spaced ditches and furrows provide maximum water contact area for recharging water from the source stream or canal. This technique requires less soil preparation than the recharge basin technique and is less sensitive to silting. Recharge basins: AR basins are either excavated or enclosed by dykes or levees.
The latter layout has the advantage that the phreatic groundwater tables will be higher and, accordingly, the depths to the interface greater. This implies the availability of a larger volume of freshwater for emergencies. Moreover, due to the greater thickness, the residence times will be somewhat longer and somewhat more spread out. The regime of desired or accepted groundwater tables should also be judged in relation to the topography and the ecological features of the terrain. Depending on the variation of the water requirements over time, as determined by the climate and weather, and on the availability of water of good quality for AR, the actual rates of abstraction and AR of groundwater may vary with time, periodically and incidentally.