By H. A. McKenna, J.W.S. Hearle, N. O'Hear
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Additional resources for Handbook of Fiber Rope Technology
For the first time in the history of textiles, manufacturers have had to adopt an engineering-design approach, which expects calculations to be done and quantitative design data to be specified and predicted. Rope experts have had to work with marine consulting engineers to conduct research to accurately predict fibre rope performance in order to provide inputs to mooring analysis computer programs. 14 Handbook of fibre rope technology (a) (b) Fig. 13 (a) A modern rope-making machine from Roblon.
There are premium grades of polymer known as UHMWPE, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, used in higher-performance plastics and in the HMPE or HPPE fibres described later. The other polyolefin used in ropes is polypropylene, PP, [–CH2–CH(CH3)–]n. This differs from PE in having a –CH3 side-group attached to alternate main-chain carbon atoms. Being hydrocarbons, the polyolefins have weak molecular interactions. Yarns are produced by melt-spinning and drawing, but the temperatures are lower and the processes easier than for nylon or polyester.
B) A B Bast fibre in the stem C D A. Bark. B. Bast fibres. C. Cambium layer. D. Woody fibre. E. Pith. E (c) Fig. 1 Location of reinforcing fibres in plants. (a) In abaca (manila) leaf. (b) In sisal leaf. (c) In the stem of a bast fibre plant. From Himmelfarb (1957). 38 Handbook of fibre rope technology a b c d e (b) g f (a) (d) (c) Fig. 2 Features of cotton fibres. (a) Schematic view: a – primary wall; b – secondary wall; c – lumen; d – molecule; e – crystal lattice; f – fibrils; g – reversal.