By Ge.. Frank Kreith
In an international the place waste incinerators aren't an alternative and landfills are at over ability, towns are difficult pressed to discover an answer to the matter of what to do with their stable waste. instruction manual of strong Waste administration, 2/e deals an answer. This instruction manual deals an built-in method of the making plans, layout, and administration of reasonable and environmentally dependable reliable waste disposal process. enable twenty and govt specialists offer you the instruments to layout a great waste administration method able to removing waste in a reasonable and environmentally liable demeanour. targeting the six basic features of an built-in system--source aid, toxicity relief, recycling and reuse, composting, waste- to-energy combustion, and landfilling--they discover every one expertise and think about its difficulties, bills, and criminal and social ramifications.
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Extra resources for Handbook of Solid Waste Management, 2nd Edition
Subtitle D set forth performance-based minimum criteria in the following six areas: ● ● ● ● ● ● Location restrictions Operations Design Groundwater monitoring and corrective action Closure and postclosure care Financial assurance Each of these criteria is summarized in detail in the following sections. Structure of Rule. The structure of Subtitle D allows for the requirements to be selfimplementing or for states to receive approval from EPA to implement and enforce its provisions. In those states that do not receive or seek approval, the owner or operator is responsible for ensuring that the facility is in compliance with all provisions of the rule.
EPA has estimated that about 12 million tons of methane are released from landfills per year in the United States. New regulations, however, will reduce the environmental impact of landfilling in the future. 16 CHAPTER ONE Capital Costs It should be noted that capital cost data available in the literature vary in quality, detail, and reliability. As a result, the range of the cost data is broad. Factors which will affect the costs reported are the year when a facility was built, the interest rate paid for the capital, the regulations in force at the time of construction, the manner in which a project was funded (privately or publicly), and the location in which the facility is located.
MRF O&M Costs. O&M costs for MRFs range from $20 to $60 per ton of material separated, with a typical value in the range of $40 to $50/ton. The large variation in O&M costs is due, in large part, to inconsistencies in the methods of reporting cost data and not on predictable variations based on the type of technology or the size of the facility. In general, lowtechnology MRFs have higher operating costs than high-technology MRFs, because of the greater labor intensity of the former. Composting O&M Costs.