By Nicola Guarino, Daniel Oberle, Steffen Staab (auth.), Steffen Staab, Rudi Studer (eds.)
An ontology is a proper description of techniques and relationships which can exist for a neighborhood of human and/or computer brokers. The proposal of ontologies is essential for the aim of allowing wisdom sharing and reuse. The guide on Ontologies presents a finished evaluation of the present prestige and destiny prospectives of the sphere of ontologies contemplating ontology languages, ontology engineering equipment, instance ontologies, infrastructures and applied sciences for ontologies, and the way to deliver this all into ontology-based infrastructures and purposes which are among the finest in their type. the sphere of ontologies has drastically built and grown within the 5 years because the first version of the Handbook on Ontologies. for this reason, its revision contains 21 thoroughly new chapters in addition to an incredible re-working of 15 chapters transferred to this moment edition.
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Extra info for Handbook on Ontologies
4 Language Expressiveness Issues At one extreme, we have rather informal approaches for the language L that may allow the deﬁnitions of terms only, with little or no speciﬁcation of the What Is an Ontology? 13 Fig. 4. Diﬀerent approaches to the language L according to . Typically, logical languages are eligible for the formal, explicit speciﬁcation, and, thus, ontologies meaning of the term. , logical languages that allow specifying rigorously formalized logical theories. This gives rise to the continuum introduced by  and depicted in Fig.
Ik . t. subsumption) concepts C1 , . . , Ck in the available DL that have these individuals as instances. In a second step, these concepts are generalized into Description Logics 35 one concept by computing the least common subsumer of C1 , . . e. the least concept description (in the available DL) that subsumes C1 , . . , Ck . In this context, rewriting of concepts comes into play since the concept descriptions produced by the algorithms for computing least common subsumers may be rather large (and thus not easy to comprehend and modify for the knowledge engineer).
More generally, sets of tuples (if we have more than one answer variable). Roughly speaking, individual names from the ABox are in the answer set if, for each model of the ontology, we can ﬁnd a match from the variables into the model’s domain such that all conjuncts in the query are satisﬁed. Hence, as in instance retrieval, all axioms in the ontology are taken fully into account when answering queries. However, in contrast to the standard reasoning problems, and especially instance retrieval, answering conjunctive queries cannot be reduced to consistency.