By Smithers Rapra
As festival and insist raises, a brand new general has risen. Offshore exploration and restoration is relocating to larger depths, at greater pressures and temperatures than ever formerly encountered and infrequently in considerably extra not easy and corrosive environments. Land dependent operations are using a broader array of more advantageous oil restoration fluids and media, in addition to being compelled to paintings in excessive H2S focus deposits, each one of which locations extra pressure at the non-metallic elements of the units and instruments utilized in the restoration of fluids and gases. In a few environments, comparable to tar sands, necessities for hugely abrasion resistant fabrics with huge working temperature home windows in excessive strain steam touch is providing new demanding situations to fabrics companies.
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Additional resources for High Performance Polymers for Oil and Gas 2013
15 N CP/MAS NMR spectra of (a) PBI steam-treated with D2O at 150 °C (6 kHz), (b) dried PBI (6 kHz), (c) melt-blended PEEK-PBI (10 kHz), and (d) melt-blended PEKK-PBI (10 kHz). In order to further elucidate whether a strong N-H···O=C hydrogen bridge formation between the PEKK and PBI strands of melt-blended samples takes place, IR spectroscopy has been used. The hydrogen bridges should lead to a weakening of the O=C bond, and thus reduced bond order, which in turn should result in a lower IR frequency of the O=C stretching band.
This knowledge has been essential to develop a process suitable for a light weight filler system incorporated into an elastomer based compound. High effort has been put into verification of survival of the light weight fillers true mixing, calendaring or extrusion to obtain optimal and stable insulation properties. 1 Hand application Application of VIKOTHERM insulation coating has up to now been done by manual hand coating of complex geometries, see picture 6. 2 Machine coating Wrapping of calendared sheet in a coating machine has been used as application for straight pipes, see picture 7.
However, this difference is rather small and may not suffice as a strong proof of N-H···O=C hydrogen bridge formation in the PEKK-PBI melt-blend. Paper 4 - Bluemel Page 4 of 12 pages High Performance Polymers for Oil and Gas 2013 10-12 April, 2013 – Houston, USA Figure 5. IR Spectra of melt-blended PEKK-PBI (top), and a physical mixture of PEKK and PBI (bottom). To sum up this section, it is possible to obtain all 13C signals of PEEK, PEKK, and their PBI blends with reasonable linewidths, and to assign all signals unequivocally.