By K.E. Nye;J. M. Parkin
A accomplished account of HIV and AIDS, the administration of the sickness and capability vaccines. This booklet is key examining for clinical scholars and clinicians, and of significant curiosity to scholars and researchers within the existence sciences.
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Extra resources for HIV AND AIDS (Medical Perspectives Series)
HIV enteropathy describes the chronic pathogen-negative diarrhea and malabsorption sometimes associated with marked weight loss that occurs in HIV-positive individuals. The pathological findings are of subtotal villous atrophy and extensive damage to autonomic fibers in the small bowel . It has recently been shown that 30% or more of the lymphocytes in the lamina propria are HIV infected in AIDS. These cells actively secrete cytokines, in particular IL-1β and TNFα. These ‘pro-inflammatory’ molecules not only cause inflammation, but may also increase gut permeability and may cause the structural abnormalities described above.
This model is, however, too simplistic and other factors such as sheer viral load and accessory-cell dysfunction almost certainly affect disease progression. 6 The role of antibodies in maternal-fetal infection Estimates of the incidence of transmission of HIV-1 between mother and child vary between 10% and 50%. Whether most of the infection that is detected in babies occurs in utero or at delivery is unclear. There is evidence of intrauterine infection through in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies , and the virus has been found in cord blood and amniotic fluid.
2: Factors associated with rapidly progressive HIV disease been given is that drug users tend to use less during pregnancy, have better nutrition and medical care, and therefore their physical health may be maintained and compensate for any adverse effect of HIV activation. The only factor which has consistently been shown to correlate with increased progression rates across all adult populations is age. One study has shown that the median ‘treatment-free’ incubation time is 12 years for HIV infection contracted at the age of 20 years, 10 years for infection at 30 years, and 8 years for infection at age 40 years .