By Alfred Slager
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Extra info for Internationalization of Banks: Strategic Patterns and Performance
In 2003 Crédit Lyonnais was fully acquired by Crédit Agricole in a domestic consolidation move, ahead of BNP Paribas who also had built up an equity stake and shown interest to acquire the whole bank. The Agricole-Lyonnais combination controls about a third of the country’s retail bank business. Realized internationalization strategies 49 Bank of America: retreating internationalization strategy The initially California based Bank of America was in the 1970s a bank with a large worldwide presence.
In some cases they are simply restricted by earlier actions (Commerzbank internationalization activities lagged behind its domestic Realized internationalization strategies 41 competitors because it had accumulated less reserves in the 1980s) or focus: Argentaria was created as a domestic oriented bank, and Rabobank had a strong domestic base. At some point, usually when the acceleration in internationalization activities took place for the Accelerating banks, these banks also attempted to catch up with their competitors and strongly increase their foreign activities.
Ruigrok and Wagner, 2003). This means that internationalization costs outweigh benefits until banks gain experience and learn to deal with them. Consequently, banks will reach an 4 The following paragraphs about the shape of internationalisation lean heavily on Ruigrok and Wagner (2003). 58 Profitability and shareholder value inflexion point along the expansion path at which incremental benefits start to outweigh incremental costs. This is visualized as a J- or U-curve. This scenario implies that bank undergo a period of performance deterioration before experimental knowledge can lead to higher performance levels.