By Lawrence F. Travis III
This student-friendly introductory textual content describes the legal justice process―outlining the selections, practices, humans, and matters concerned. It offers a superior creation to the mechanisms of the legal justice procedure, with balanced insurance of the problems awarded through each one side of the method, together with an intensive overview of practices and controversies in legislation enforcement, the felony courts, and corrections.
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Additional resources for Introduction to Criminal Justice
The actual outcome of changes in the means of production of the criminal justice system is not as important as the fact that the alterations will lead to adaptations in the system. For example, the recent problem of prison and jail crowding has meant that many offenders who would otherwise have been imprisoned have been released early or placed on probation instead of being sent to prison or jail. In addition, the recent trend toward “truth in sentencing” laws, which eliminate or reduce the opportunity for parole and good time credit, has been heralded as a way to “get tough” on crime and reduce sentencing discrepancies.
The usefulness of the justice system must be understood within the total context of social control institutions. 1. 1 SOCIAL CONTROL INSTITUTIONS IN AMERICA Social control is achieved in many ways: through lessons learned by the individual about what is appropriate or inappropriate behavior, through structured opportunity that does not allow the individual the chance to deviate, through the exercise of coercive force to limit behavior. , fines, incarceration, execution, assessment of damages) That most of the pedestrians and vehicles in the illustration that opens this chapter obey the traffic lights and signs is evidence of social control.
Closed systems are relatively impervious and insensitive to the environment, whereas those that more freely interact with their environments are open. A closed system is often self-contained. One simplistic example of a closed system is an astronaut in a space suit. Whether standing on earth, conducting a spacewalk, or exploring another planet, the astronaut is insulated from the environment. To the degree that it functions regardless of surroundings, the life-support system of a space suit is a closed system.