By Richard A. Billows
Julius Caesar bargains a full of life, attractive, and punctiliously updated account of CaesarвЂ™s lifestyles and occasions. Richard BillowsвЂ™ dynamic and fast-paced narrative deals an innovative recounting of activities and occasions, offering the proper creation to Julius Caesar for normal readers and scholars of classics and historical heritage.
The e-book is not only a biography of Caesar, yet an old account and rationalization of the decline and fall of the Roman Republican governing method, during which Caesar performed a vital half. to appreciate CaesarвЂ™s existence and function, it will be significant to understand the political, social and financial difficulties Rome used to be grappling with, and the deep divisions inside Roman society that got here from them. Caesar has been visible variously as a trifling opportunist, a power-hungry autocrat, an boastful aristocrat disdaining competitors, a conventional Roman noble baby-kisser who stumbled into civil battle and autocracy because of being misunderstood by means of his competitors, or even because the excellent guy and development of all virtues. Richard A. Billows argues that such portrayals fail to contemplate the common testimony of our old resources that Roman political lifestyles was once divided in CaesarвЂ™s time into nice political trends, referred to as ''optimates'' and ''populares'' within the resources, of which Caesar got here to be the chief of 1: the ''popularis'' faction.
Billows means that it is just once we see Caesar because the chief of a very good political and social circulation, that were being affected by its rival stream for many years and have been a number of instances violently repressed during that fight, that we will know the way and why Caesar got here to struggle and win a civil conflict, and convey the conventional governing procedure of Rome to an finish.
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43 He did, however, take the opportunity to arrange the assassination of another rival member of the Numidian royal family who had taken refuge at Rome. Provoked by this outrage, even the Senate realized that Bestia’s treaty could not stand, repudiated it, and assigned further warfare against Jugurtha to the consul of 110, Sp. Postumius Albinus. This consul, however, faced by delaying tactics on the part of Jugurtha and serious demoralization in the Roman forces, achieved nothing 20 R O M E A N D I TA LY I N T H E S E C O N D C E N T U RY BCE before being obliged to return to Rome to supervise the elections, leaving his army under the command of his brother Aulus.
In two great battles near Aix, Marius annihilated the forces of the Teutones and their allies, killing most of the men of military age and capturing thousands of their dependants; Catulus’s relatively untrained army, however, lost its nerve as the Cimbri approached, and Catulus was forced to lead them in retreat to take up position south of the Po, leaving Gallia Cisalpina to the Cimbri. Marius, reelected consul for 101, quickly marched his victorious army back into Italy to link up with Catulus, who had been continued in command, and the two jointly confronted the Cimbri at Vercellae, winning an overwhelming victory which ended the Germanic threat.
Despite Metellus’s reluctance to let him go, Marius finally won his freedom to leave Africa and travel to Rome to stand for the consular elections in 108 for 107; and he was triumphantly elected. Ignoring the tradition that commands were assigned by the Senate, a popular law was passed transferring command against Jugurtha from Metellus to Marius, and the latter began preparations to fulfil his promise to win the war quickly and efficiently. The major issue facing him was military recruitment: none knew better than he that conscripting new soldiers via the census classes would be both difficult and unpopular, and provide him with disaffected and unmotivated soldiers.