By William C. Meadows
Winner, a call extraordinary educational Book
For many Plains Indians, being a warrior and veteran has lengthy been the normal pathway to male honor and standing. males and boys shaped army societies to have a good time victories in battle, to accomplish neighborhood provider, and to arrange younger males for his or her function as warriors and hunters. through retaining cultural varieties contained in music, dance, ritual, language, kinship, economics, naming, and different semireligious ceremonies, those societies have performed a massive position in holding Plains Indian tradition from the pre-reservation period till today.
In this e-book, Williams C. Meadows provides an in-depth ethnohistorical survey of Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche army societies, drawn from wide interviews with tribal elders and armed forces society contributors, unpublished archival resources, and linguistic information. He examines their constitution, capabilities, rituals, and martial symbols, displaying how they healthy inside higher tribal companies. And he explores how army societies, like powwows, became a special public layout for cultural and ethnic continuity.
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Additional resources for Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche Military Societies: Enduring Veterans, 1800 to the Present
On August 30, 1804, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark describe a Teton Sioux military society with obligatory battle behavior and fraternal characteristics of sitting, camping, and dancing together, reportedly in imitation of one of several Crow military societies (Thwaites 1904 : 1 : 130). Their references further demonstrate the widespread temporal presence of Northern Plains Indian military societies, from which later scholars infer their diffusion to other tribes (Lowie 1916a). Wissler (1914 : 12, 18) asserts that such ‘‘typical’’ Plains traits as the Sun Dance and military societies were well distributed among Plains populations prior to the diffusion of the horse and its subsequent role in diffusing other traits.
Syncretic religions that arise during nativistic movements are often called ‘‘cults of despair,’’ from their rapid appearance during crisis periods of acculturation (Slotkin 1975 : 17; Jacobs 1987 : 135; Kracht 1989 : 16). The introduction of new cult institutions with syncretic features characterizes ‘‘revitalization’’ movements—nativistic social movements featuring prophecy and a coming utopian state (Wallace 1956 : 264; Ryan 1969 : 188– 189; Kracht 1989 : 17). Revitalization or ‘‘transformative’’ movements are social movements through which a culturally stressed group attempts to improve its subordinate position in the larger sociocultural structure during the members’ life- Sodalities and Plains Indian Military Societies 23 time ( Jorgensen 1972 : 6 –7; Aberle 1982 : 318–320; Kracht 1989 : 17).
The introduction of new cult institutions with syncretic features characterizes ‘‘revitalization’’ movements—nativistic social movements featuring prophecy and a coming utopian state (Wallace 1956 : 264; Ryan 1969 : 188– 189; Kracht 1989 : 17). Revitalization or ‘‘transformative’’ movements are social movements through which a culturally stressed group attempts to improve its subordinate position in the larger sociocultural structure during the members’ life- Sodalities and Plains Indian Military Societies 23 time ( Jorgensen 1972 : 6 –7; Aberle 1982 : 318–320; Kracht 1989 : 17).