By Tor P. Scultz, Wolfgang G. Glasser, Wolfgang Glasser, Tor P. Schultz
content material: Lignin chemistry, expertise, and usage : a short historical past / Joseph L. McCarthy and Aminul Islam --
the character of lignin : a distinct view / ok. Forss and K-E. Fremer --
Monolignol compositional determinants in loblolly pine : fragrant amino acid metabolism and linked rate-limiting steps / Hendrik van Rensburg, Aldwin M. Anterola, Lanfang H. Levine, Laurence B. Davin, and Norman G. Lewis --
Genetic engineering of poplar lignins : influence of lignin alteration on kraft pulping performances / C. Lapierre, B. Pollet, M. Petit-Conil, G. Pilate, C. Leplé, W. Boerjan, and L. Jouanin --
Lignin-polysaccharide interactions in woody crops / Richard F. Helm --
Structural heterogeneity of hardwood lignin : features of end-wise lignin fraction / Keko Hori and Gyosuke Meshitsuka --
Molecular orbital calculations at the interplay of veratryl alcohol with the lignin peroxidase energetic website / Thomas Elder and David C. younger --
Lignin impression on angiosperm sapwood susceptibility to white-rot fungal colonization : a speculation / Tor P. Schultz and Darrel D. Nicholas --
class of lignin based on chemical and molecular constitution / Wolfgang G. Glasser --
an summary of chemical degradation equipment for making a choice on lignin condensed devices / Y.-Z. Lai, H. Xu, and R. Yang --
utilizing Raman spectroscopy to spot chromophores in lignin-lignocellulosics / U.P. Agarwal and R.H. Atalla --
restricting molecular weight of lignin from autocatalyzed organosolv pulping of hardwood / H.L. Hergert, G.C. Goyal, and J.H. Lora --
Structural research of dehydrogenation polymer (models of lignin) motion pictures on the air-water interface via neutron reflectivity / B. Cathala, N. Puff, V. Aguié-Béghin, R. Douillard, and B. Monties --
Comparative research of the lignins of cork from Quercus suber L. and wooden from Eucalyptus globulus L. by way of dry hydrogen iodide cleavage / L.G. Akim, N. Cordeiro, C. Pascoal Neto, and A. Gandini --
advertisement use of lignin-based fabrics / J.D. Gargulak and S.E. Lebo --
Synthesis of ¹⁴C-labelled 1-ethenylbenzene utilizing Wittig response and synthesis of graft copolymer of lignin and ¹⁴C-labelled 1-ethenylbenzene / Meng-Jiu Chen and John J. Meister --
Blends of biodegradable thermoplastics with lignin esters / Indrajit Ghosh, Rajesh okay. Jain, and Wolfgang G. Glasser --
Thermoplastics with very excessive lignin contents / Yan Li and Simo Sarkanen --
Plasma amendment of lignin / G. Toriz, F. Denes, and R.A. younger --
Chemistry of pulping: lignin reactions / Josef S. Gratzl and Chen-Loung Chen --
The interaction among oxygen-derived radical species within the delignification in the course of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide bleaching / Josef Gierer --
A comparability of the structural adjustments taking place in lignin in the course of Alcell and kraft pulping of hardwoods and softwoods / Ying Liu, Sandra Carriero, Kendall Pye, and Dimitris S. Argyropoulos --
A room-temperature [beta]-O-4 to [alpha]-O-4 rearrangement / D.L. Criss, T.H. Fisher, L.L. Ingram, Jr., D.J. Beard, and Tor P. Schultz --
Peracids in kraft pulp bleaching : previous, current, and destiny / ok. Poppius-Levlin, A.-S. Jääskeläinen, A. Seisto, and A. Fuhrmann --
Chemical amendment of lignin-rich paper : light-induced adjustments of softwood and hardwood chemithermomechanical pulps: the influence of irradiation resource / Magnus Paulsson and Arthur J. Ragauskas --
research of ortho- and para-quinone chromophores in alkaline extraction degree residual lignins / Michael Zawadzki, Troy Runge, and Arthur J. Ragauskas --
Chemical features of lignins extracted from softwood TMP after O₃ and CIO₂ remedy / D.R. Robert, M. Szadeczki, and D. Lachenal.
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Extra resources for Lignin: Historical, Biological, and Materials Perspectives
In 1980, Sjôstrôm (448) summarized the knowledge of chemistry of oxygen delignification as well as the chemistry of sulfite delignification. In 1980, kraft pulping was interpreted in chemical terms by Gierer (452) as a competition between alkali-promoted degradation and condensation reactions. Cleavage of the various types of lignin bonds was attributed to three phases of kraft pulping. Similarities in the degradation mechanisms of lignins and carbohydrates were noted. Based on the results from extensive model studies, Gierer (486,487) in 1985 divided the chemical reactions involved in pulping and bleaching into nucleophilic and electrophilic categories.
35 elemental and functional group analyses, *H-NMR spectroscopy, permanganate oxidation degradation, and gel-permeation chromatography were incorporated in the program. A structural scheme for softwood lignin was generated (Figure 5). The linkage frequencies for this structure are given in Table I. Reactions. In 1989, Gellerstedt and Northey (517) at STFI studied the structure of birch M W L from the quantification of over 30 different acids from permanganate oxidation. Their results suggested that α aryl-ether linkages were cleaved during milling.
Generally, three approaches were taken towards investigating lignin structure: degradation reactions, biosynthetic work, and spectroscopy studies. In the most common approach, lignin formulations were subjected to various degradation reactions yielding identifiable products that gave useful structural information. Many new analytical techniques were developed during these times that were highly useful for the lignin chemists. In the final approach, model compounds were synthesized from postulated lignin precursors to produce new products for study.