By Michael Pye (auth.)
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Extra resources for Macmillan Dictionary of Religion
See VIHARA. aranya. See ARANYAKAS. Aranyakas (Sanskrit: 'forest-treatises'). A group of writings following the BRAHMANAS, supposedly written by and for people who had entered the third stage of life (aranya, 'forest-dweller'). These had no longer any ritual and social obligations but could devote themselves to meditation. Sometimes, as in the BRHADARAYANKA-UPANISAD they are combined with the following UPANISAD. area. See PANCARATRA. arcane. See ARCANUM. arcanum (Latin). Secret. In post-classical Latin the term usually refers to the secrets (arcana) of alchemy.
The forest- 23 dwelling stage is a time for meditation, penance and reflection on the transient nature of life, during which household responsibilities are handed over to the next generation. The fourth represents complete withdrawal from worldly responsibilities. The practice of the four dsramas was always restricted to the 'twice-born' Brahmin class. Even here it has always been regarded as an ideal scheme designed to integrate worldly and spiritual aspects of human life. In reality many have never entered the third stage, let alone the fourth.
A priest to whom pre-eminence is assigned, notably in ritual and procedural contexts. In Christianity, although the title still occurs in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches, it was more widespread during the 1st millennium, during which it was common for an archpriest to stand in for a BISHOP. 20 arctic hysteria arctic hysteria. Various states of hysteria documented in Siberia. For example, among the Yakuts a form of hysteria appears from time to time which has the nature of an epidemic and is called a menerik.