By Dexter Hoyos
To claim the Punic Wars (264-146 BC) have been a turning aspect in global heritage is an unlimited understatement. This bloody and persistent clash pitted flourishing Mediterranean powers opposed to each other, leaving one an unrivalled big and the opposite a literal pile of ash. To later observers, a collision among those civilizations appeared inevitable and but to the Romans and Carthaginians on the time hostilities first erupted doubtless out of nowhere, with what have been anticipated to be inconsequential results.
Mastering the West bargains a completely engrossing narrative of this century of conflict within the western Mediterranean, whereas treating an entire variety of subject matters: the antagonists' army, naval, fiscal, and demographic assets; the political constructions of either republics; and the postwar impression of the conflicts at the individuals and sufferers. The narrative additionally investigates questions of management and the contributions and blunders of leaders like Hannibal, Fabius the Delayer, Scipio Africanus, Masinissa, and Scipio Aemilianus. Dexter Hoyos, a number one specialist of the interval, treats the 2 nice powers frivolously, with no neglecting the $64000 roles performed through Syracuse, Macedon, and particularly Numidia.
Written with verve in a transparent, available type, with quite a number illustrations and newly-commissioned maps, studying the West will be the main trustworthy and fascinating narrative of this pivotal period in historical heritage.
Read Online or Download Mastering the West: Rome and Carthage at War PDF
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Additional resources for Mastering the West: Rome and Carthage at War
The Greek city of Messana, had been seized a decade and a half earlier by an unemployed force of mercenaries from Campania; ironically, their old employer had been Agathocles, until he died in 289. Lawless, bellicose, and greedy, the new owners of Messana called themselves Mamertines after the Campanian war god Mamers (Mars to the Romans) and lived up to the name by attacking and plundering their neighbors, then by aligning themselves with Carthage against Pyrrhus, and afterward by impartially raiding the Carthaginian west as well.
Carthage’s kinfolk and allies, other old Phoenician colonies such as Hippou Acra, Utica, and Hadrumetum, were privileged rather like the Latins in Italy: these “Libyphoenicians” had rights of intermarriage and trade with their big sister while contributing to her military enterprises. Utica, the nearest of them, earns special mention in Hannibal’s treaty with Macedon in 215. By contrast, the communities of Libya’s fertile valleys and plains were more heavily controlled. Though self-governing, they had to pay taxes and supply soldiers, and it was taxation, often harshly exacted, that fed Libyan resentment to produce repeated uprisings—all of them firmly crushed.
The front centurion of their first maniple was the legion’s chief centurion, a formidable veteran always consulted by any intelligent commander along with his senior officers. These were four military tribunes in each legion, not appointed by their commander but elected by the Comitia Centuriata. 3 Roman armies did not use mercenaries, save for rare occasions. Legionaries and Roman cavalrymen were citizens, were entitled to a daily pay of about three bronze asses (the earliest Roman coin) for a legionary and ten for a cavalryman, were recruited from men above a minimum property qualification—determining this was a task of the five-yearly censors—and had to buy their own equipment.