By Shulin Xu, Vittorio Guglielmetti, Piergiorgio Grasso, Ashraf Mahtab
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Extra info for Mechanized Tunnelling in Urban Areas
1. e. quantiﬁcation of the associated risk) and to be given a response at the design stage, through proper design choices or through design prescriptions for the subsequent construction phase. A rule derived from experience is that a Risk Register should be updated constantly during the project life and used to communicate and share risk policy and residual risk acceptance. 2 The initial risk: qualitative risk analysis Risk analysis can be both qualitative and quantitative, but in the relatively early step of the project qualitative risk analysis is often used.
9 provides an example of Risk Register Form. After identifying the hazards, the Risk Register Form is used to track the speciﬁc risk analysis of each hazard. The hazard, for example, ‘tunnelling - TBM operation - ground loss’, is given a code. Then it is described by listing its causes and describing qualitatively estimated consequences in terms (for example) of construction, commercial, and exploitation impacts. Based on the speciﬁc qualitative scales of P and I, the initial risk is quantiﬁed and, in case it is unacceptable, mitigation measures are listed to be implemented both at the design and at the construction stages, in order to reduce the probability and/or the impact.
2), which excavated ground ranging from residual soils to fractured fresh granite of Porto. The machines described in this book are substantially those special TBMs which we call “city machines”, because they are especially conceived for use in sensitive urban environment. The fundamental requirements for this category of machines are described in Section 4. 4 has demonstrated the human anxiety and need to search for excavation tools that are more and more suitable for difﬁcult situations and provide, at the same time, increasingly higher levels of safety.