By Arthur M. Eckstein
In his wide-ranging and masterful narrative, Eckstein explains that foreign politics within the historic Mediterranean global used to be, in political technology phrases, a multipolar anarchy: overseas legislation was once minimum, and states struggled desperately for strength and survival through war. ultimately, one kingdom, the Republic of Rome, controlled to create predominance and a kind of peace. Rome was once definitely a militarized and competitive country, however it was once winning now not since it was once unparalleled in its ruthlessness, Eckstein convincingly argues; really, it was once winning due to its unheard of skill to regulate a wide community of overseas allies, and to assimilate various foreigners in the polity itself. This publication indicates how those features, in flip, gave Rome incomparably huge assets for the bleak fight of states fostered by way of the Mediterranean anarchy—and accordingly they have been key to Rome's extraordinary success.
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Additional info for Mediterranean anarchy, interstate war, and the rise of Rome
Keeley (150) also stresses that the least warlike known societies are small groups mostly isolated from other human groups. 34. So Aron 1973: 7. 35. Holsti 1991: 20; Geller and Singer 1998: 99; cf. Brecher and Wilkenfeld 1982: 380–417. 36. Gochman and Maoz 1984: 592–93; accepted by Geller and Singer 1998: 128. Anthropologists have discerned the same grim rule in pre-state communities: the greater the number of social units, the greater the number of violent conﬂicts; see Keeley 1999: 118–21. Realist Paradigms of Interstate Behavior 21 cold wars (that is, deep rivalries of long duration).
Arendt 1970: 5. The insight tracing warfare among states under anarchic conditions to the pressures of the anarchic system in which states exist goes back in modern thinking at least to Lowes Dickenson 1926: chap. I (analyzing the events leading to World War I). Once more, the empirical ﬁndings of modern political scientists appear to conﬁrm the thinking here: see above, n. 45. 47. See Waltz 1979: 161–70. Research on modern state-systems shows that bipolar systems are—depending on the study and the period covered—either signiﬁcantly or (only) somewhat less war-prone than multipolar systems, though each is signiﬁcantly more warprone than unipolar systems: summary in Geller and Singer 1998: 115–17.
Keohane 1986: 14–15; Spirtas 1996: 391–92. Morgenthau 1973: 208. Sheehan 1996: 14. Aron 1973: 100. Sheehan 1996: 69–70. Ibid. 14. Realist Paradigms of Interstate Behavior 17 An even more important motive for seeking survival and security through accumulation of superiority is that no state in a militarized anarchy can accurately know the capabilities of the many other competing states. Ignorance on this crucial subject is not total; but information is usually uncertain, sporadic, and difﬁcult to interpret, whereas distrust of motives and intentions of others is rampant.