By Zhi-Jian Li, Tian-Ling Ren (auth.), Zhaoying Zhou, Zhonglin Wang, Liwei Lin (eds.)
“Microsystems and Nanotechnology” provides the newest technological know-how and engineering study and achievements within the fields of microsystems and nanotechnology, bringing jointly contributions through authoritative specialists from the U.S., Germany, nice Britain, Japan and China to debate the most recent advances in microelectromechanical platforms (MEMS) know-how and micro/nanotechnology. The publication is split into 5 components – the basics of microsystems and nanotechnology, microsystems know-how, nanotechnology, program concerns, and the advancements and customers – and is a necessary reference for college kids, academics and engineers operating with the concerned technologies.
Professor Zhaoying Zhou is a professor on the division of Precision tools & Mechanology , Tsinghua collage , and the Chairman of the MEMS & NEMS Society of China. Dr. Zhonglin Wang is the Director of the heart for Nanostructure Characterization, Georgia Tech, united states. Dr. Liwei Lin is a Professor on the division of Mechanical Engineering, collage of California at Berkeley, USA.
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Additional info for Microsystems and Nanotechnology
It is more important that many 29 Microsystems and Nanotechnology molecules intrinsically can perform certain functions just like specific circuits. The intrinsic function is determined by the molecular electronic structures. Some examples are shown in Fig. 16. 16(a) illustrates a molecular rectifier proposed by Aviram and Ratner. In order to measure the electronic performance of a single molecule, a metal electrode is placed on its two sides. It is required that the Fermi level of the electrodes should match the free energy level of the outer bonding (S ) electron of the molecule.
In NEMS, one can not only use the muchenhanced sensitivity with ultra-small device size for sensors but also the various 31 Microsystems and Nanotechnology quantum effects for information processing. For example, when the size of a suspended beam is scaled to nanometers, its mechanical resonant frequency can reach tens, even hundreds of GHz and thus can be used to form new mechanical switches with very high switching speed for digital information processing. By reasonable estimation with this type of nanomechanical switches, switching energy as low as §10–19 J is obtainable.
However, when one electron is trapped, due to Coulomb repulsive force there is a tendency to repel the next new electrons from entering, or strictly speaking, the energy barrier height around the particle is raised. This effect is called Coulomb blockade[33 – 35]. 8 illustrates the schematic energy band diagram for explaining the effect. The quantum well represents the electron affinity of the Coulomb island, and the two energy barriers are produced by the two dielectric thin layers, which are placed between the side metallic electrode and the island.