By Professor Dr. Boris K. Vainshtein, Professor Dr. Vladimir M. Fridkin, Professor Dr. Vladimir L. Indenbom (auth.)
Structureof Crystals describes the appropriate and actual atomic constitution of crystals in addition to the digital constructions. the basics of chemical bonding among atoms are given, and the geometric representations within the concept of crystal constitution and crystal chemistry, in addition to the lattice power, are thought of. the real periods of crystal buildings in inorganic compounds in addition to the buildings of polymers, liquid crystals, organic crystals, and macromolecules are taken care of. This version is complemented with contemporary facts on many sorts of crystal constructions - e.g., the constitution of fullerenes, high-temperature superconductors, minerals, and liquid crystals.
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Extra resources for Modern Crystallography 2: Structure of Crystals
Principles of Fonnation of the Atomic Structure of Crystals multielectron atoms according to the same principles. One of the electrons forming a covalent bond can be contributed to the orbital, as we have seen, by each of the contacting atoms. But there is another possibility for the formation of a two-electron covalent bond, namely, when one of the combining atoms (or groupings) - a donor - has an excess of electrons not involved in any bond, while the other - an acceptor - has a free orbital unoccupied by electrons.
25a, b. Chemical bond in moleeules of ethylene C 2 H 4 (a) and benzene C 6 H 6 (b). Trigonal hybridized sp AO [shown only in (a)] form ordinary bonds ofC atoms among themselves and C-H bonds. The additional bond between the C atoms is due to the 1t MO. 25a shows the scheme of the MO of the plane ethylene molecule ~C=C~ ; sp 2 hybridization of C atoms on the basis of s, Px, and Py AO and a combination of these orbitals with the s AO of the H atom results in an MO with H atoms and a (J bond c-c. To the second valence dash corresponds the 1t MO produced from the pz AO.
On the other hand, the orbital radii of the outer shells of the anions, wh ich have received the electrons needed for their complete filling, coincide almost exactly with the orbital radii of the outer shells of the same neutral atoms. 869 A. In other words, the electron structure of the anions practically coincides with that of the neutral atom, but their outer electron shell becomes "denser". 8, 10) for these atoms, taking into account the distance between them in the crystal. To do this, we plot the theoretically calculated radial functions of the outer shells both for neutral atoms and for the ions Na + and CI-, laying them off towards one another from the ends of a segment equal to the interatomic distance in the crystal (Fig.