By David J. Lomas (auth.), J. Stoker (eds.)
MRI has turn into an enormous device within the administration of sufferers with illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract, reminiscent of rectal melanoma and inflammatory bowel illnesses. This ebook, written by way of individual specialists within the box, discusses intimately the technical, functional, and scientific facets of MRI of the gastrointestinal tract. The chapters on process surround the newest advancements and deal with such issues as distinction media, excessive box power MRI, and perfusion MRI. as a result, person chapters are dedicated to the medical functions of MRI within the assorted elements of the gastrointestinal tract. either verified purposes and new frontiers are thought of, by using quite a few fine quality illustrations. via combining chapters devoted to technical elements and clinically orientated chapters, this publication will end up very instructive for the beginner whereas at the same time supplying skilled practitioners additional insights into the worth of MRI of the gastrointestinal tract.
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Extra info for MRI of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Thus, SAR aspects frequently introduce limitations in the use of sequences such as spin echo (SE) or balanced SSFP (Schefﬂer and Lehnhardt 2003) that often work close to SAR limits. the last years. They belong to the class of rapid gradient-echo sequences where in each TR, the magnetization reaches the same state thus implying that the signal is acquired in steady state, this process having been described for the ﬁrst time by Carr (1958) as SSFP. In a given TR, the RF pulse rotates the magnetization by a given angle q and in the course of TR, the magnetization will undergo longitudinal and transverse relaxation.
EPI, however, is nowadays seldomly applied in the abdomen except for diffusion weighted imaging where fast imaging is needed. Here, EPI is usually employed in the form of spin-echo ultra fast EPI. This is a hybrid sequence where after each 90° pulse and before each gradient echo readout, an additional 180° refocusing pulse is added. As a consequence, several gradient echoes with T2-weigthing, each corresponding to a different phase encoding step, are sampled in each readout. 5 T, namely by allowing the acquisition of high-resolution images within short scan times.
7 SSFP Banding Artifacts Pulse sequences falling under the classiﬁcation of balanced (b-)SSFP sequences such as b-FFE (balanced fast ﬁeld echo), True-FISP (fast imaging with steadystate precession), and FIESTA (fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition) have become popular in 25 26 A. J. Nederveen and S. I. Gonçalves which characterizes the type of steady state that is reached and results in different types of contrast. In quantitative terms, the amount of dephasing in each TR is given by: TR b (r,TR) = gd B0 (r)TR + g r .