By Tünde Kirstein
Clever fabric builders draw on various fields of data to provide targeted fabrics with more advantageous houses and enormous strength. a number of disciplines open air the normal fabric sector are concerned about the development of those shrewdpermanent textiles, and every person box has its personal language, particular phrases and techniques. Multidisciplinary knowledge for smart-textiles builders presents a filtered wisdom of those parts of craftsmanship, explaining key expressions and demonstrating their relevance to the shrewdpermanent textiles box. half one stories fabrics hired within the construction of shrewdpermanent textiles, prior to half explores the applied sciences which may be used and integrated into clever textiles. eventually, product improvement and purposes are the point of interest of half 3.
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3 Electro-conductive materials and their properties The variety of electro-conductive materials has significantly increased in recent years. The choice of which material to use depends to a large extent on its properties. Next to the material’s electro-conductive properties, its chemical characteristics, such as reactivity to humidity, air or fluids, and its mechanical behaviour are relevant parameters during processing and for the performance of the final product. The chemical characteristics of an electro-conductive material, especially in the case of metals, are best described when talking about corrosion.
In pure form it has such a high resistivity that it is an insulator. However, its resistivity can be greatly reduced by doping, which is achieved by adding impurities, such as phosphorous (to create an n-type semiconductor) or aluminium and boron (to create a p-type semiconductor), to a melt and subsequently allowing the melt to solidify into the crystal. Silicon exists with various levels of crystallinity, from amorphous (a-Si:H) to nanocrystalline (nc-Si), microcrystalline (μc-Si) and polycrystalline (pc-Si).
Noble metals, such as gold or palladium, possess a surface that is remarkably resistant to oxidation. Corrosion may also appear in polymers. However, in this context, the term degradation is most likely used. As aforementioned, the mechanical properties of an electro-conductive material is another important aspect when choosing the right material. It is known that metal filaments compromise good electro-conductive properties with weak mechanical characteristics. They can hardly be stretched or stressed without breakage or at least a change of their electrical resistance.