By John Cantwell
In globalising economies, quite these facing a means of monetary integration corresponding to these economies in the european, areas forge a growing number of linkages with different destinations inside of and throughout nationwide borders. this can be principally conducted through the technological efforts of establishment organizations (MNCs). This e-book explores the local size of Europe when it comes to localised technological comparative merits and the site of leading edge actions by way of MNCs. utilizing an empirical research John Cantwell and Simona Iammarino hide such vital issues as:*MNC technological actions and financial wealth*MNCs and the local structures of innovation in Italy, united kingdom, Germany and France*the geographical hierarchy throughout eu nationwide borders.
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Extra resources for Multinational Corporations and European Regional Systems of Innovation (Studies in Global Competition, V. 18)
As already argued, a crucial element in the model of the local accumulation of knowledge involves the attraction of outside resources, which may set off strong cumulative processes. The inﬂow of knowledge is driven both by actors from the outside attracted into the region and by local actors who try and tap into outside knowledge. 9 The pertinent issue for the regional host economy in attempting to entice such high value added operations is to understand what renders a location attractive or ‘sticky in such slippery space’ (Markusen, 1996).
The next section begins with a short summary of the relevant conceptual background, which is followed by the description of the data used in this book as a proxy for advanced technological capability, reported in the third section. An overall picture of the distribution and growth rates of both MNC technological activity and per capita GDP across 69 regions located in seven EU countries is provided in the section after. We then select 30 regions, the most meaningful in terms of our proxy for innovative activity, for a more in-depth analysis by technological sector and over time.
On the one hand, the strength that allows a ﬁrm to invest and govern its operations across national boundaries is its ability to innovate and to take advantage of such innovation in different locations through its own organisation. The authentic global generation of innovations requires, on the other hand, a wide range of skills and capabilities that only ﬁrms with speciﬁc infrastructure, organisation and management can attain (Archibugi and Iammarino, 1999). This explains why there has been a shift in attention away from the MNC as a mere vehicle of technology transfer towards the crucial role it plays as a creator of innovation and technological knowledge (Chesnais, 1988; Cantwell, 1994).