By Rabindranath Tagore
‘More than the other Indian he has . . . broadened the bases of Indian nationalism. He has been India’s internationalist par excellence’ —Jawaharlal Nehru Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) was once the 1st Asian to win a Nobel Prize. Nationalism relies on lectures brought by means of him throughout the First international conflict. whereas the countries of Europe have been doing conflict, Tagore recommended his audiences in Japan and the USA to eschew political aggressiveness and cultural conceitedness. His challenge, one may perhaps say, was once to synthesize East and West, culture and modernity. The lectures weren't regularly good bought on the time, yet they have been chillingly prophetic. As Ramachandra Guha exhibits in his great and erudite creation, it used to be via interpreting and talking to Tagore that these founders of contemporary India, Gandhi and Nehru, built a thought of nationalism that used to be inclusive instead of particular. Tagore’s Nationalism could be obligatory interpreting in today’s weather of xenophobia, sectarianism, violence and intolerance.
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Additional resources for Nationalism (Penguin Modern Classics)
Breuilly’s criticism of Smith’s approach (Breuilly  1996:150–3). Breuilly argues that a most striking thing about national phenomena is the discontinuities between pre-modern ethnicity and modern national identity. 15 Some studies focusing on this issue are Hutchinson, 1987; Yoshino, 1992; Royce, 1993; Hann, 1995; Aberbach, 1997. 16 The major parts of Hroch’s two books on this issue are translated into English and combined into one. See Hroch (1985). 17 It has to be noted that Hroch uses the term “national movement,” instead of “nationalism,” to denote the process of national formations of small, opposed ethnic groups—namely, a sequence of actions to develop a national culture, to achieve civil rights and political selfadministration, and to create their own ruling class and a complete structure of social class— in Central and Eastern Europe in the nineteenth or early twentieth century.
INTRODUCTION 17 That is, to claim a right to their territory and self-determination, a group of people usually has to demonstrate that they form a unique people. Ideas about culture, especially as a particular way of life, have been crucial to every defense of self-determination. Culture is used to confirm the existence of a distinctive group of people deserving the right to plan their own political future. In this manner, culture as a particular way of life becomes a means for attaining power (Penrose 1995).
28 2 Japanese colonialism and literary and linguistic reforms in colonial Taiwan Taiwanese intellectuals’ articulation of Taiwanese cultural particularity dates back to the pre-Second World War colonial period. The Japanese colonial administration (1895– 1945) tried hard to sever Taiwanese ties with China and to assimilate the colonized. It was precisely this alien rule that stimulated serious reflection on local cultural distinctiveness. ” The focus of this chapter is on two attempts to effect linguistic and literary reforms that were made in the early 1920s and early 1930s respectively.