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This e-book will conceal fundamental roles of NKT cells in immunity to melanoma, in either mouse tumor types and melanoma sufferers. There are numerous chapters describing common points of NKT cells.
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Additional resources for Natural Killer T cells: Balancing the Regulation of Tumor Immunity
As mentioned above, a glycerophospholipid, PI, also is able to stimulate an iNKT cell hybridoma (Gumperz et al. 2000), but it is not the universal iNKT cell ligand. A recent study reported the surprising ﬁnding, however, that lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), eluted along with several other lipids from human CD1d, could stimulate the majority of human iNKT cell clones tested in a CD1d-dependent fashion (Cox et al. 2009; Fox et al. 2009). Lyso-PC, different from other phosphoacylglycerols like PI (Fig.
These ﬁndings are consistent with another report in which the authors found that truncation of either the phytosphingosine or N-acyl chain endowed GSLs with the ability to bias iNKT cell-induced responses in favor of Th2 cytokines (Goff et al. 2004). A different type of modiﬁcation of the ceramide lipid could induce increased in vivo production of the prototypical Th1 cytokine, IFNJ. By replacing the oxygen atom linking and the galactose sugar with ceramide with a methylene group, Tsuji et al. synthesized and tested a C-glycosidic form of DGalCer, named C-DGalCer.
An DGalCer analog that has two unsaturated bonds in a fatty acid chain consisting of 20 carbons (C20:2) showed an obvious tendency to induce more IL-4 relative to IFNJ, with only a small effect on antigenic potency. These ﬁndings are consistent with another report in which the authors found that truncation of either the phytosphingosine or N-acyl chain endowed GSLs with the ability to bias iNKT cell-induced responses in favor of Th2 cytokines (Goff et al. 2004). A different type of modiﬁcation of the ceramide lipid could induce increased in vivo production of the prototypical Th1 cytokine, IFNJ.