By Robert Plomin
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Extra info for Nature, Nurture, and Psychology
The differential model has been applied with vigor to a great variety of behavioral phenotypes. The index of Plomin et al. (1990) includes ability, activity, aggressive behavior, aggressive conduct disorder, alcoholism, Alzheimer’s disease, amaurotic idiocy, anorexia nervosa, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety neurosis, attention deficit disorder, attitudes, avoidance behavior, and avoidance learning-just in the As. At one time, the demonstration of a genetic influence in a behavioral phenotype was noteworthy (and, per se, publication-worthy).
The specific observations on RNA are particularly pertinent to the present topic. , 1992). 47 GERALD E. McCLEARN Mild footshock stress in rats has been shown to increase expression of the c-fos gene in the brain (Smith, Banerjee, Gold, & Glowa, 1992). , 1992). It is irresistible to contemplate the effects of short periods of stress. , 1992). It is unlikely that this represents a lower limit to the temporal grain in which gene+nvironment interactions take place. It may well be that such interactions occur on the temporal scale appropriate for the processes of neurotransmitter production, reuptake, and disposition.
MZ = rnonozygotic; DZ = dizygotic four subscales, either taken individually or in terms of the Verbal, Performance, and Total I& composites. Table 2 gives a descriptive breakdown of the twin sample. In this ongoing study, intelligence test data is currently available on 381 pairs of MZ twins and 217 pairs of same-sex DZ twins. The samples are largest for the youngest and oldest twin groups and particularly small for the two intermediate-age DZ samples. The I& means and standard deviations (SDs) are comparable across groups but differ slightly from the normative values of 100 and 15, respectively.