By David Rich Lewis
In the course of the 19th century, american citizens seemed to the eventual civilization and assimilation of local american citizens via a strategy of elimination, reservation, and directed tradition swap. rules for directed subsistence swap and incorporation had far-reaching social and environmental effects for local peoples and local lands. This research explores the reports of 3 groups--Northern Utes, Hupas, and Tohono O'odhams--with settled reservation and disbursed agriculture within the 19th and 20th centuries. each one staff inhabited a distinct surroundings, and their cultural traditions mirrored certain subsistence diversifications to lifestyles within the western usa. every one skilled the complete weight of federal agrarian coverage but replied in a different way, in culturally constant methods, to subsistence switch and the ensuing social and environmental outcomes. makes an attempt to set up winning agricultural economies eventually failed as each one staff reproduced their very own cultural values in a reduced and speedily altering surroundings. in spite of everything, such regulations and agrarian reports left Indian farmers marginally included and economically based.
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Extra info for Neither Wolf Nor Dog: American Indians, Environment, and Agrarian Change
29 3 AGRICULTURE AND THE NORTHERN UTES In 1847, the first wave of Mormon settlers entered Ute territory and began to build their Kingdom of God on earth—a kingdom that did not include the native residents of Utah. Utes were slowly removed from the best lands and subjected to a series of policies designed to transform them into settled and self-sufficient agrarians. Reservation farming and ranching represented a fundamental change in their social and subsistence organization. Utes responded on both individual and group levels to this cultural assault, selectively adopting, adapting, and reproducing Ute ways within an ever-changing environment.
What needs to be addressed just as seriously is the response of Native Americans as rational actors, living in known environments, with their own scales of value and their own cultural reactions to farming and directed changes entailed in American Indian policy. 2 NUCIU, THE NORTHERN UTE PEOPLE The Utes (Nuciu) are a culturally self-identifying group of affiliated bands which inhabited the eastern Great Basin and Rocky Mountain parks of Colorado, Utah, and northwestern New Mexico. 1 Once ranging widely throughout this region in search of food, trade, and resources, the modern Utes retain only a vestige of their extensive estate: the Uintah-Ouray Reservation in northeastern Utah, Southern Ute in southwestern Colorado, and Ute Mountain along the western Colorado-New Mexico border.
44 The Meriam Report's recommendation came as small farmers, both Indian and non-Indian, began suffering the effects of a deepening economic and environmental nightmare. Commissioner John Collier and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 put an end to allotment as depression put a virtual end to Indian farming. Under Collier, the Indian Bureau recognized the national trend away from small family farms to larger corporate operations and retreated from attempts to transform Indians into self-sufficient or even individual market farmers.