By Miklos Szendroi (ed.)
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Extra info for Orthopedics
Above: Abduction contracture of the right hip; when lower limbs are parallel, this limb will be longer. The child is compensating by bending the knee. Below: Adduction contracture in the right hip. When lower limbs are parallel, the right limb will be shorter. The child is compensating by bending the opposite knee. dial epicondyle of the femur or the patella (Fig. ). Apparent shortening or lengthening is pri marily a sequel of joint contractures or of ankylosis of the lower limb joints . If the lower limbs are parallel, in case of adduction contracture of the hip the limb will be shorter, in the event of abduction contracture it will be longer (Fig.
Fistulography: The draining sinus is filled with contrast medium. At present this is used only if the ultrasonography can not un ambiguously reveal the extent and shape of the sinus and its relation to the bone and j oint. Myelography: contrast injected into the liquor space to diagnose space reducing pro cesses of the spinal canal. In the presence of eT and MR it is used extremely rarely. Angiography : The blood vessels are visu alized using contrast medium. This is used only rarely as a diagnostic tool.
A circulatory disturbance may be suspected if the above symptoms are accompanied by changes in color and � � � � temperature of the given part of the body or the limb. Swelling. Pain may draw the attention of the patient to the swelling of some body part, but the swelling may be painless. Pathological effusion in peripheral joints causes fusiform swelling of the area of the joint. It is important to determine if the swelling involves one or more joints. The quantity of joint fluid is usually well observed by the patient, who can give valuable information on this subject.