By Carter Vaughn Findley
During this sequel to his hugely acclaimed Bureaucratic Reform within the Ottoman Empire, Carter Findley shifts concentration from the organizational points of administrative reform and improvement to the officers themselves. A learn in social background and its cultural and monetary ramifications, Findley's new e-book severely reassesses Ottoman accomplishments and screw ups in turning an archaic scribal corps into a good civil service.
Combining scrutiny of well-documented people with analyses of enormous teams of officers, Findley considers how a lot the improvement of civil officialdom benefited Ottoman efforts to revitalize the kingdom and safeguard its pursuits in an more and more aggressive international. Did reformers' projects in elite formation considerably increase the social bases of officialdom and its potential to symbolize Ottoman society? Did potential officers cash in on academic reform that allows you to in achieving greater degrees of qualification over the generations? How did cultural tensions of the reform period impact civil officers? To what quantity did impersonal approach and new rules of professionalism supplant patronage and previous scribal function ideas? How good did the nation reach lucrative reliable carrier and preserving its officers opposed to moving fiscal stipulations? The solutions to such questions light up significant problems with social integration and cultural swap and make clear hyperlinks among financial stipulations and altering kinds of political activism.
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Extra info for Ottoman Civil Officialdom: A Social History
49 Significantly, it was about this time, with growing use of the term miilkiye to refer to local administration (the basic associations of the term are with both landownership and sovereignty), that it became common to refer to the former kalem efendileri, the "gentlemen of the offices" (efendi being then a title of address for a literate gentleman), as civil officials ( miilkiye memurlan) so . 'Aziz, and other names combining 'abd with one of the divine names). Ottoman poets, too, spoke of slavery to describe the lover's relationship to the beloved, a relationship closely iden tified with that of slave and ruler: Walter G.
24 In this case, the modem Turkish edition (the only one readily available to me) omits the author's byname Mizancz and bears a different title from the Ottoman original: Mehmet Murat, Mansur Bey, ed. M. Ertugrul Diizdag, Istanbul, 1 972. Cf. Finn, Early Turkish Novel, 5 1-64; Evin, Origins, 1 1 3--28. Why Study Ottoman Officials? I 1 3 rather reflects Ottoman traditions and nineteenth-century socioeconomic conditions. Indeed, it is not too much to argue that the prominence of civil officialdom as a segment of late Ottoman society approximated that of the bourgeoisie in western Europe, a similarity perhaps obliquely reflected in the criticisms that Ottoman literary men and ideologues heaped on the officials.
As we shall note more fully in the next chapter, if the patrimonial state was organized overall on the lines of a great household in which the ruling class were the ruler's slaves, the personnel "system" of the scribal service was deeply enmeshed, for want of a clearly defined policy, in the officials' own household-centered webs of personal relations. The reassertion of central authority led to changes in these patterns when it became clear to Mahmud II ( 1 808-1 839) that even he, to whom centralization meant concentration of power in the palace, required an upgraded cadre of government servants to represent him across his far flung dominions and abroad.