By George V Chilingar
Electrokinetics is a time period utilized to a gaggle of physicochemical phenomena related to the shipping of fees, motion of charged debris, results of utilized electrical power and fluid shipping in numerous porous media to permit for a wanted migration or circulate to be accomplished. those phenomena comprise electrokinetics, electroosmosis, ion migration, electrophoresis, streaming capability and electroviscosity. those phenomena are heavily comparable and all give a contribution to the delivery and migration of other ionic species and chemical compounds in porous media. The physicochemical and electrochemical homes of a porous medium and the pore fluid, and the magnitudes of the utilized electric strength all influence the course and pace of the fluid move. additionally, an electric strength is generated upon the pressured passage of fluid sporting charged debris via a porous medium.
The use of electrokinetics within the box of petroleum and environmental engineering used to be groundbreaking while George Chilingar pioneered its use many years in the past, however it has simply been lately that its complete power has been studied. this is often the 1st quantity of its style ever written, delivering the petroleum or environmental engineer a pragmatic “how to” publication on utilizing electrokinetics for extra effective and higher oil restoration and restoration from tough reservoirs.
This groundbreaking quantity is a must have for any petroleum engineer operating within the box, and for college students and college in petroleum engineering departments worldwide.
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Extra info for Petroleum and Environmental Engineers
1987. Electroosmotic control of hazardous waste. PhysicoChemical Hydrodynamics, 9(1/2): 345. , 1945. Grounding principle and practice. Elect. , 64 (1): 1–15. Rutgers, A. , 1945. Trans. , 41: 758. , 1974. The Physics of Flow Through Porous Media. University of Toronto Press. P. , 1993. Removal of contaminants from saturated clay by electroosmosis. Environmental Science Technology, 27(2): 283–291. Shapiro, A. S. , 1989. Preliminary studies on the removal of chemical species from saturated porous media by electroosmosis.
The main problem in acidizing is the fact that the radial distance the acid will penetrate until being spent is short, especially in tight carbonates. 12) where qi is the acid injection rate (bbl/min); t is the spending time (sec); ϕ is the fractional porosity; h is the formation thickness (ft); and rw is the wellbore radius (ft). As shown in Eq. 12), in order to increase ra, either t or qi should be increased. , 1968, 1970, for example). The application of electrokinetics in Abu Dhabi carbonate reservoir rocks has been proven to be very promising by Haroun et al.
C. , 2013). 20 Electrokinetics for Petroleum and Environmental Engineers power supply located on the surface. The acid must be injected with corrosion inhibitors into the formation; however, the aluminum anode will also serve as a sacrificial anode. By applying DC current during acidizing operations, the volumetric rate of flow increases, which, in turn, increases the penetration distance of the acid before it is being spent. Without application of DC current, the penetration distance is usually very short, especially in tight rocks.