By Anthony Kenny
This is the concluding quantity of Sir Anthony Kenny's enormous four-volume heritage of philosophy, the 1st significant single-author narrative heritage to seem for a number of many years. during this quantity, Kenny tells the interesting tale of the advance of philosophy within the sleek global, from the early 19th century to the tip of the millennium. along (and intertwined with) notable clinical advances, cultural alterations, and political upheavals, the final centuries have noticeable the most exciting and unique advancements in philosophical pondering, that have reworked our figuring out of ourselves and our international. within the first a part of the booklet, Kenny bargains a full of life narrative introducing the main thinkers of their ancient context. between these we meet are the nice figures of continental eu philosophy, from Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche to Heidegger, Sartre, and Derrida; the Pragmatists comparable to C.S. Pierce and William James, who first constructed a distinctively American philosophical culture; Marx, Darwin, and Freud, the non-philosophers whose impact on philosophy was once enormous; and Wittgenstein and Russell, neighbors and co-workers who set the time table for analytic philosophy within the 20th century. Kenny then proceeds to steer the reader lucidly during the 9 major parts of philosophical paintings within the interval, providing a major engagement with rules and arguments approximately common sense, language, epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, politics, and the life of God. Graced with many appealing illustrations, Philosophy within the glossy global concludes Kenny's stimulating heritage of the highbrow improvement of Western civilization, permitting readers to track the start and progress of philosophy from antiquity to the current day.
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Extra info for Philosophy in the Modern World: A New History of Western Philosophy, Volume 4
In the course of dealing with this question in The Grammar of Assent, Newman had much to say of general philosophical interest about the nature of belief, in secular as well as religious contexts. The general philosophical question posed by Newman is this: is it always wrong to give assent to a proposition in the absence of adequate evidence or argument? Locke had asserted that no proposition should be entertained with greater assurance than justified by the proofs it was built on. In response, Newman pointed to the fact that many of our most solid beliefs go well beyond the flimsy evidence we could offer for them.
The best known of his later books was published in 1871, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. In that book, besides developing the theory of sexual selection, which was an important supplement to the theory of natural selection, he defended the thesis that human beings shared a common ancestor with orang-utans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. He died in 1882 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Darwin was not the first person to propose a theory of evolution. 3 But Empedocles had been savaged by Aristotle, who believed that species had existed from eternity, and he was ignored by Christians, who believed that animal species had been created by God for Adam in the Garden of Eden.
Having obtained a doctorate from Jena University for a thesis on Democritus and Epicurus, in 1842 Marx broke with the Young Hegelians, went to live in Cologne, and began a career as a political journalist. He edited a radical newspaper, the Rheinische Zeitung. In 1843 he married a woman he had known since childhood, Jenny von Westphalen, the daughter of a baron in the service of the Prussian government. Though irritable and dictatorial, Marx—unusually among great philosophers—enjoyed, until Jenny’s death in 1881, a happy married life.